Микрогины Myrmica rubra: есть генетические отличия?
K. Vepsalainen, J. R. Ebsen, R. Savolainen and J. J. Boomsma
Genetic differentiation between the ant Myrmica rubra and its microgynous social parasite
"Insectes Sociaux", 2009,
Volume 56 Issue 4, Pages 425-437.
В ходе исследования генетической диференциации между муравьями Myrmica rubra и их микрогинными социальными паразитами
показано их некоторое субвидовое отличие.
Инквилинные паразиты в отряде Перепончатокрылых насекомых произошли путем симпатрической дифференциации через внутривидовой социальный паразитизм.
Один такой соцпаразит, Myrmica microrubra Seifert, 1993 (род Myrmica), был недавно синонимизирован с видом Myrmica
rubra, служащим ему хозяином, поскольку сравнение популяций со всей Европы не показало существенных генетических отличий. Here, we use
microsatellite markers to study genetic differentiation more precisely in a sample of Finnish M. rubra and its inquilines collected at two
localities, supplemented with mitochondrial DNA sequences. The parasite had much lower genetic variation than the host at three of the four loci
studied. Genetic differentiation between the host populations was moderate (F ST = 0.089), whereas the parasite populations were more strongly
subdivided (F ST = 0.440). The host and parasite were highly genetically differentiated both across populations (F ST = 0.346) and in strict sympatry
(0.327, 0.364), a result that remained robust both in a haplotype network and in PCA ordination. Individual assignments of genotypes indicated that
gene flow between sympatric host and inquiline populations is reduced by about an order of magnitude relative to the gene flow within the morphs. Our
results suggest that the parasitic morph of M. rubra may be an incipient species, but it remains unclear to what extent the observed genetic
differentiation between host and inquiline is due to possible assortative mating and selection against hybrids or to recurrent bottlenecking and
genetic drift. We conclude that an explicitly functional species concept would be unambiguous in treating this inquiline as a full species, as it
begets its own kind and maintains its integrity in spite of occasional interbreeding with the host.
Keywords Inquiline - Microsatellites - mtDNA - Myrmica microrubra - Sympatric speciation
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9 новых для науки видов (2009) рода Myrmica описаны из из Китая и
Кашмира: Myrmica sculptiventris n. sp., M. schulzi n. sp., M. phalacra n. sp., M. varisculpta n. sp., M. hlavaci n.
sp., M. pleiorhytida n. sp., M. multiplex n. sp., M. yunnanensis n. sp., M. heterorhytida n. sp.
7 новых для науки видов (2008) рода Myrmica описаны из Китая: M. curiosa n. sp., M.
mixta n. sp., M. pararitae n. sp., M. poldii n. sp., M. sinoschencki n. sp., M. weii n. sp., M. polyglypta n.
- 2 новых вида (2007): Myrmica paradoxa n. sp. и Myrmica eocenica n. sp.
- 1 новый вид (2008): Myrmica xavieri Radchenko, Elmes & Savolainen, 2008 (Испания)
Муравьи Myrmica punctiventris и M. crassirugis Неарктики
- 4 новых вида (2007): M. semiparasitica n. sp., M. punctinops n. sp., M. crassirugis n. sp., M. wheelerorum n. sp.
Обзор ископаемых муравьев рода Myrmica из янтаря
- 2 новых вида (2007): Myrmica paradoxa n. sp. и Myrmica eocenica n. sp.
Ревизия Палеарктических видов муравьев группы Myrmica schencki-group
- 3 новых вида (2006): M. siciliana n. sp. (Сицилия), M. onoyamai n. sp. (Япония), M. inucta n. sp. (с.-з.Казахстан), Myrmica schoedli Radchenko, Elmes
& Viet 2006 (Вьетнам)
Социальный паразит Myrmica из Голландии.
- 1 новый вид (2005): Myrmica schenckioides Boer & Noordijk, 2005
- 1 новый вид (2004): Myrmica tobiasi
Myrmica afghanica nov. sp. из Афганистана.
- 2 новых вида (2003): M. afghanica n. sp. (Афганистан), Myrmica pelops Seifert, 2003 (Греция)
- 4 новых вида (2002): Myrmica anatolica, Myrmica jennyae, Myrmica tamarae, Myrmica tulinae (Турция).
"Гиганты" M. titanica, M. yamanei из Вьетнама
- 8 новых видов (2001): Myrmica angulata, M. draco, M. hyungokae, M. koreana, M. sinensis, M. taibaiensis, M. titanica, M. yamanei (8 новых видов из
Китая и окрестностей).
- 10 новых видов (1999): Myrmica brancuccii, M. nititda, M. ordinaria, M. petita, M. rhytida, M. villosa, M.
vittata, M. wardi, M. williamsi, M.wittmeri (10 новых видов со склонов Гималайских гор).
- 6 новых видов (1998): M. boltoni, M. collingwoodi, M. martensi, M. rigatoi, M. urbanii (5 новых видов со склонов Гималайских гор), Myrmica mirabile
Arnoldi, K.V. (1976) Муравьи рода Myrmica Latr. Средней Азии и Южного Казахстана. Зоол.журн., 55(4), 547–558.
Описаны новые виды и подвиды: M. juglandeti, M. kryzhanovskii, M. lobicornis foreliella, M. lobicornis kirgisorum, M. minuta iskanderi, M.
minuta tarbinskii, M. orthostyla, M. sancta tshuliensis, M. tianshanica, & M. tianshanica alajensis.
Collingwood, C.A. (1961) The 3rd Danish expedition to Central Asia. Zoological Results 27. Formicidae
(Insecta) from Afghanistan. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, 123(1960), 52–79.
Описание мирмекофауны Афганистана
Elmes, G. W. (1973). "Miniature queens of the ant Myrmica rubra L. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Entomologist 106: 133-136.
Elmes, G. W. (1973). "Observations on the density of queens in natural colonies of Myrmica rubra L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Anim. Ecol.
Elmes, G. W. (1974). "Colony populations of Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl. (Hymenoptera Formicidae)." Oecologia 15: 337-343.
Elmes, G. W. (1974). "The effect of colony population on caste size in three species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 21: 213
Elmes, G. W. (1975). Population studies on the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with special reference to southern England, Ph.D.
thesis, University of London, 334 p.
Available from: BLL, Ref. No. D16007/76
Elmes, G. W. (1976). Comparative ecology of Myrmica species, Annual Report of the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, 1975 :38-39.
Elmes, G. W. (1976). Populations of Myrmica (Formicidae) living on different types of Calluma moorland - a semi natural habitat of southern
England, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Soc. Insects Anthropogenic Environ., Warsaw, p. 21-30.
Elmes, G. W. (1976). "Some observations on the microgyne form of Myrmica rubra L. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 23: 3-22.
Elmes, G. W. (1978). "A morphometric comparison of three closely related species of Myrmica (Formicidae), including a new species from England."
Syst. Entomol. 3: 131-145.
Elmes, G. W. (1978). "Populations of Myrmica (Formicidae) living on different types of Calluma moorland - a semi-natural habitat of southern
England." Mem. Zool. 29: 41-60.
Elmes, G. W. (1980). "Queen number in colonies of ants of the genus Myrmica." Insect. Soc. 27: 43-60.
The effects upon the structure of a population of Myrmica colonies is examined under the assumption that colonies adopt a strategy of
persistent exclusive monogyny. Th effects of various queen mortality curves are examined. It is concluded that field data does not support a hypothesis
based on this strategy and it is suggested that all Myrmica colonies recruit replacement queens. The effects of different queen recruitment
efficiencies are examined for haplometrotic and pleometrotic species. It is concluded that if all species have a capacity to recruit queens then all
are potentially secondarily polygynous. The evolutionary significance of the social status of Myrmica ants is discussed.
Elmes, G. W. (1981). "An aberrant form of Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander (Hym. Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 28: 27-31.
Elmes, G. W. (1982). Intra-colonial competition in ants, with special reference to the genus Myrmica. The biology of social insects. Proceedings
of the Ninth Congress of the IUSSI, Boulder, Colorado, August 1982. M. D. Breed, C. D. Michener and H. E. Evans. Boulder, CO. 420 p., Westview Press:
Elmes, G. W. (1982). "The phenology of five species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera Formicidae) from South Dorset, England." Insect. Soc. 29: 548-
1. The patterns of worker activity of five Myrmica spp. have been measured by pitfall trapping. There were no marked differences between the
species except for a generally higher activity level of M. sabuleti Meinert during the Winter months. 2. M. ruginodis Nyl. was caught at the coldest
site and M. sabuleti at the hottest sites. This is consistent with their performance under laboratory conditions. 3. Fertile queens of all species can
be caught at any time during the active season. The importance of this observation to the social biology of Myrmica is discussed.
Elmes, G. W. and A. M. Abbott (1981). "Colony populations of Myrmica schencki Emery collected in Jutland, Denmark." Nat. Jutl. 19: 53-
The populations of 30 colonies of Myrmica schencki Emery were collected from the Mols laboratory in Denmark. The population data and biometry
of individuals are given. It is concluded that M. schencki is normally, but not rigorously monogynous and a discrepancy with similar data for the
American form Myrmica schencki ssp. emeryana is discussed. Color variation were observed in several colonies and one colony contained four fertilized
Myrmica scabrinodis Nyl. queens. In this case they were acting as temporary facultative parasites.
Elmes, G. W. and R. T. Clarke (1981). A biometric investigation of variation of workers of Myrmica ruginodis Nylander (Formicidae).
Biosystematics of social insects. Systematics Association Special Volume No. 19. P. E. Howse and J. L. Clйment. London. 346 p., Academic Press: 121-
Variation of 12 morphometrics were measured for 690 workers of M. ruginodis. A nested analysis of variance was used to break down the variation
into that due to differences within colonies, between colonies within sites, between sites within countries and between countries. The effect of
variation in the size of queen in the colonies was measured and eliminated from the analysis. Worker size was found to account for about 75% of the
variation between workers, therefore the morhometrics were standardized for size and re-analysed. The results showed that variation in a colony's mean
queen size had a considerable effect upon the variation between colonies. Also variations in shape (size-adjusted morphometrics)were mostly within
colonies. The results are discussed and three explanations are put forward.
Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1981). "The quantity and quality of overwintered larvae in five species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)."
J. Zool. (Lond.) 193: 429-446.
The numbers of queens, workers and larvae were recorded for a sample of hibernating colonies from five different species of Myrmica. The larvae
were divided into three size classes. The frequencies and distribution of larvae within these size classes have been compared between species and
between queened and queenless colonies. A sample of each larval class was reared to the pupal stage and the resulting castes were recorded. The
Discussion compares all the species with Myrmica rubra and attempts to explain the differences observed for the different species.
Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1982). "Variations in populations of Myrmica sabuleti and M. scabrinodis (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) living in
Southern England." Pedobiologia 23: 90-97.
The density and colony populations of Myrmica sabuleti Meinert and M. scabrinodis Nyl., living at two English sites are compared with other
available data for these species. One of the sites was the last to support a British population of the large blue butterfly, Maculiea arion L. There
was no evidence of inter colonial competition at these sites. The large blue site supported very small colonies of both ant species although the
colonies were at the average density recorded for all sites.
Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1982). "A population study of the ants Myrmica sabuleti and Myrmica scabrinodis, living at two sites in the
South of England. I. A comparison of colony populations." J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 651-664.
(1) The size and structure of colonies of Myrmica sabuleti Meinert living at two well-grazed grassland sites have been investigated for several
years by excavation of colonies. One site was on chalk grassland and the other on acid grassland. The latter supported a population of M. scabrinodis
Nyl. which was also investigated. The acid site was the last known British site for Maculinea arion (large blue butterfly) which is parasitic upon M.
sabuleti for part of its life cycle. (2) Means are given for six parameters of colony population. These are compared for site, annual and within-site
differences. It is shown that colonies producing reproductives are significantly larger than those that do not. There are significant variations within
sites between years but these are small compared to between-site and interspecific differences. (3) Regression analysis enables some deductions to be
made concerning the regulation of sexual production. Sexuals are reared at the expense of new workers. Both male and new worker production is closely
related to worker population whereas gyne production seems more related to workers size. (4) The differences between and within populations are
discussed in terms of nest site insolation.
Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1982). "A population study of the ants Myrmica sabuleti and Myrmica scabrinodis living at two sites in the south
of England. II. Effect of above-nest vegetation." J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 665-680.
Elmes, G. W. (1983). "Some experimental observations on the parasitic Myrmica hirsuta Elmes." Insect. Soc. 30: 221-234.
Myrmica hirsuta Elmes is an uncommon social parasite of Myrmica sabuleti Meinert. Collection of several hundred M. sabuleti nests indicate that
less than 2% are infested by M. hirsuta. M. sabuleti usually live in grassland so that the presence of the parasite can be detected only by nest
excavation; practically, this means that it is not possible to obtain experimental material other than by chance. The experiments reported in this
paper have been made on material collected in this way and consequently they are not as well balanced or replicated as would be desired were unlimited
experimental stock available. Despite these reservations the experiments do show some interesting differences between the social physiology of M.
hirsuta and its host. M. hirsuta has two types of queen, either small unfertilised individuals that have no real effect on a colony or larger
fertilised forms that have a 'queen effect' on M. sabuleti larvae that is very similar to that of M. sabuleti queens. The larger queens are produced
from medium sized larvae that have had a period of hibernation. The smaller type of queen most likely develop from small larvae that had not grown
sufficiently before hibernation or perhaps from larvae partly suppressed by 'queen effect': These are in effect a type of worker caste. Generally M.
hirsuta larvae seem unaffected by the suppression type 'queen effect'. M. hirsuta queens start egg-laying earlier than M. sabuleti queens and seem to
be able to retard the onset of oviposition by the host queens when cultured together. Indirect evidence suggests that the availability of eggs as food
may be important to the survival of the parasitic larvae: A conjectural life cycle is proposed for M. hirsuta, based upon the present meagre
Elmes, G. W. (1987). "Temporal variation in colony populations of the ant Myrmica sulcinodis. 1. Changes in queen number, worker number and
spring production." J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 559-571.
(1)Colonies of the ant, Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl., were excavated in early summer 1979-85 at two heathland sites in southern England. (2) The
number of workers was, on average, 120 per colony, but varied with time and between the sites; this is interpreted in terms of a regenerating heathland
habitat. The number of new workers, reared in spring, varied annually; much of the variation is explained by the size of the colonies and most of the
remainder by the effects of the weather during the larval growth period. Spring humidity is a good descriptor of new worker production, although
humidity itself is merely a combined expression of several other climatic variables. The number of queens in the colony had no effect on the number of
new workers that were reared. New queens are reared by les than 25% of the colonies. (3) The number of queens varied annually; once the effect due to
variation in the size of colonies was removed, the number followed a cycle best described by a sine-wave. The wave has a periodicity of 4-5 years and
an amplitude of about three queens (1-3.3 geometric averages) in a colony of average size. This may be the first demonstration of such a cycle. The
mechanisms that may generate this are discussed briefly: the periodicity may represent the average longevity of queens.
Elmes, G. W. (1987). "Temporal variation in colony populations of the ant Myrmica sulcinodis. II. Sexual production and sex ratios." J. Anim.
Ecol. 56: 573-583.
(1)The number and sex ratio of reproductive castes reared by two populations of Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl. over 7 years since 1979 are reported.
On average, 40% of the colonies were small and reared no sexuals. In the remainder, sexual production was very variable, having a small significant
correlation with worker number (+ve) and queen number (-ve). Sexual production differed significantly from year to year, but not between sites. The
colonies form four groups, according to whether they rear gynes, males, both or neither. Total spring production was compared for these. The results
are consistent with data for other Myrmica species. (2) The sex ratio varied between years and sites. Both populations had a male bias, which was
greatest in highly polygynous colonies and least in large colonies, as is expected under kinship theory. The social regulation of sexual production at
the colony level may be difficult to modify by natural selection, which operates instead on the colony structure required to maximize the species'
breeding success in its chosen habitat. If secondary polygyny is an adaptation that ensures a colony's survival in a variable habitat, then many
colonies exist for long periods in sub-optimal nest sites. Male bias is the global cost of the polygynous lifestyle for these species. In such
populations only the largest and reproductively most successful colonies might approach the optimal sex ratio; these colonies of M. sulcinodis averaged
a 1:1 sex ratio (3:1 females by dry weight).
Elmes, G. W. (1989). "The effect of multiple queens in small groups of Myrmica rubra." Actes Coll. Insect. Soc. 5: 137-144.
Elmes, G. W. and J. A. Thomas (1985). "Morphometrics as a tool in identification: a case study of Myrmica from France (Hymenoptera,
Formicidae)." Actes Coll. Insect. Soc. 2: 97-108.
Proceedings of the IUSSI French Section, Annual Meeting, 19-22 Sept 1984, Diepenbeek, Belgium. *[Populations of 3 species of Myrmica were
examined at a site in the Haute Savoie region of France; the site is notable for the presence of 2 species of the rare butterfly genus Maculinea. M.
rubra and M. scabrinodis were easily identified but, initially, the third species could be separated only by differences in the gynes and males. The
species was assumed to be M. vandeli bondroit. The workers of this species are difficult to separate from M. scabrinodis and the males can easily be
mistaken for M. sabuleti. Only the queens are readily recognisable, being very similar to M. scabrinodis, but generally much larger and darker. This
paper shows how an examination of morphometrics confirmed the identification of the species and enabled us to determine workers with a known
Elmes, G. W. and J. A. Thomas (1987). Die Biologie und Цkologie der Ameisen Gattung Myrmica. Tagfalter und ihre Lebensraume: Arten, Gefahrdung,
Schutz. W. Geiger. Basle, Schweizerischer Bund fьr Naturschutz: 404-409.
Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1983). "A comparison of the effect of a queen upon the development of large hibernated larvae of six species of
the genus Myrmica (Hym. Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 30: 134-148.
The results are given from experiments on the effect of a queen upon the growth and development of large hibernated larvae of six species of
Myrmica. These show that: - In all the species queens suppress the development of gynes (young unfertilised queens) from large larvae and tend to
decrease the time between onset of growth and pupation. - The mechanism by which workers recognize and suppress gyne potential larvae has been studied
in detail previously for Myrmica rubra L. by M.V.Brian. This is now shown to be the same in the other common Myrmica species; larvae of any species can
be suppressed by the queens and workers of any other species. - The larvae of the different species develop at different rates regardless of the
species of the workers rearing them. The larvae rank:- Myrmica ruginodis Nyl. (both vars. macrogyna and microgyna), Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl., M. rubra,
Myrmica scabrinodis Nyl. and Myrmica sabuleti Meinert - in order from the fastest to the slowest grower. - The species also rank in this order when
they all rear the same larval species, regardless of the species of larvae, showing that this is a trait of the nurse workers as well as a trait of the
Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1983). "A comparison of the effect of temperature on the development of large hibernated larvae of four species
of Myrmica (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 30: 106-118.
The effect of temperature upon the development of large hibernated larvae of 4 Myrmica species has been tested experimentally. Over the viable
temperature range of 15-25° C, it was found that: 1. There are no differences between the species in the effect of temperature upon development times.
All fit the model log Dev. time = a - b T° C with a common value for b. This gives an effective Q10 of about 3.1 which agrees with respirometrical
estimates for worker ants. 2. The value for the intercept (a) differs significantly between most species confirming the intrinsic difference that has
been demonstrated at a constant 22.5° C in previous work. The development times of larvae can be ordered from fastest to slowest being: M. ruginodis
Nyl., M. rubra L., M. scabrinodis Nyl. and M. sabuleti Meinert. At any temperature it takes M. sabuleti about 1.5 times as long as M. ruginodis to grow
from a large hibernated larva to a white pupa. 3. No large differences in larval survival or gyne production could be detected between the temperature
treatments. There was an indication that most species survived best at about 22° C. 4. The results are discussed briefly in terms of the ecological
distribution of the 4 species in the South of England. 5. The possible effects of a fluctuating temperature regime are discussed, it is suggested that
the amplitude of fluctuations may not have any great effect whereas the periodicity could be more important.
Elmes, G. W. and N. R. Webb (1985). "Swarm of Myrmica ruginodis Nylander (Hym., Formicidae) in a light trap." Entomol. Mon. Mag. 121: 108.
Elmes, G. W. (1991). "Mating strategy and isolation between the two forms, macrogyna and microgyna, of Myrmica ruginodis (Hym. Formicidae)."
Ecol. Entomol. 16: 411-423.
Elmes, G. W. (1991). "The social biology of Myrmica ants." Actes Coll. Insect. Soc. 7: 17-34.
Elmes, G. W. (1994). "A population of the social parasite Myrmica hirsuta Elmes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) recorded from Jutland, denmark, with a
first description of the worker caste." Insect. Soc. 41: 437-442.
Elmes, G. W. and M. V. Brian (1991). "The importance of the egg-mass to the activity of normal queens and microgynes of Myrmica rubra L. (Hym.
Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 38: 51-62.
Elmes, G. W. and L. Keller (1993). Distribution and ecology of queen number in ants of the genus Myrmica. Queen number and sociality in insects.
L. Keller. Oxford. 439 p., Oxford University Press: 294-307.
Elmes, G. W. and J. Petal (1990). "Queen number as an adaptable trait: evidence from wild populations of two red ant species (genus Myrmica)."
J. Anim. Ecol. 59: 675-690.
Elmes, G. W., J. A. Thomas, et al. (1991). "Larvae of Maculinea rebeli, a large-blue butterfly, and their Myrmica host ants: wild adoption and
behaviour in ant-nests." J. Zool. (London) 223: 447-460.
Elmes, G. W., J. C. Wardlaw, et al. (1991). "Larvae of Maculinea rebeli, a large-blue butterfly and their Myrmica host ants: patterns of
caterpillar growth and survival." J. Zool. (London) 224: 79-92.
Elmes, G. W. and M. V. Brian (1991). "The importance of the egg-mass to the activity of normal queens and microgynes of Myrmica rubra L. (Hym.
Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 38: 51-62.
Elmes, G. W. and A. G. Radchenko (1998). "Ants of the genus Myrmica from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Chin. J. Entomol. 18: 217-
Myrmica arisana, Myrmica formosae, Myrmica mirabile, Myrmica serica
Elmes, G. W., A. G. Radchenko, et Kim, B.J. (2001). "Two new species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea." Korean J. Biol. Sci. 5:
Myrmica hyungokae, Myrmica korea
Elmes, G. W. and D. J. Stradling (1991). "In memoriam: Michael Vaughan Brian M.A. Sc.D. OBE (1919-1990)." Insect. Soc. 38: 331-332.
Elmes, G. W., T. Akino, et al. (2002). "Interspecific differences in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of Myrmica ants are sufficiently consistent
to explain host specificity by Maculinea (large blue) butterflies." Oecologia 130: 525-535.
Elmes, G. W., A. G. Radchenko, et al. (2001). "Two new species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea." Korean J. Biol. Sci. 5: 107-
Elmes, G. W., J. A. Thomas, et al. (1998). "The ecology of Myrmica ants in relation to the conservation of Maculinea butterflies." J. Insect
Conserv. 2: 67-78.
Elmes, G. W., J. C. Wardlaw, et al. (1999). "Site latitude influences on respiration rate, fat content and the ability of worker ants to rear
larvae: A comparison of Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations over their European range." Eur. J. Entomol. 96: 117-124.
Myrmica rubra is a northern, temperate Palaearctic ant species with a geographical range that extends from the Atlantic coast of Europe to
central Asia. In Europe, its range covers > 25° of latitude where it lives under a variety of climates that vary from extreme oceanic in the west, to
continental in the east. Colonies nest in the soil and their life cycles are known to be highly dependent on ambient temperature and soil moisture. We
hypothesised that the brood-rearing behaviour of populations might be locally adapted to climate and that we might detect differences when the ants
were reared under "common-garden" conditions. Brood-rearing behaviour was compared for 38 colonies of M. rubra drawn from 13 populations representing a
range of 6 latitudes: all 6 were represented in eastern Europe and 2 in western Europe. A sample of ants from each colony was used to estimate
respiration rate, body mass and fat content at the start of the experiment in spring (immediately post hibernation) and at the end of the experiment
(mid summer). Respiration had a linear relationship with latitude, with northern populations having greater respiration rate in spring compared to
southern populations. It is suggested that this is an adaptation to different seasonality over the species' range that results in the "more active"
northern workers rearing fewer brood to maturity more quickly than southern workers. Fat content, a measure of worker "quality", had a parabolic
relationship with latitude with mid latitude colonies having the fattest workers. Fatter workers appeared to rear heavier brood. This probably
represented a functional response to environment with populations living at "edge of range" sites being physiologically more stressed and performing
brood-rearing tasks less well than centre of range populations. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a consistent, intra-specific trend
for variation in the social physiology of an ant species over its geographic range.
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Описаны новые виды: M. boltoni, M. collingwoodi, M. martensi, M. rigatoi, M. urbanii = n.sp.
Другие близкие виды: Myrmica formosae, Myrmica gigantea, Myrmica indica, Myrmica margaritae, Myrmica ritae, Myrmica serica.
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Описаны новые виды со склонов Гималайских гор: Myrmica brancuccii Radchenko, Elmes & Collingwood, M. nititda Radchenko & Elmes, M. ordinaria
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Here we describe a new ant species from Spain, Myrmica xavieri. We place it in the Myrmica lobicornis species group of which three species are
previously known in the Iberian Peninsula: M. lobicornis Nylander, M. wesmaeli Bondroit, and M. lobulicornis Nylander. Of these, M. xavieri most
closely resembles M. wesmaeli. M. xavieri is likely an Iberian endemic, a relict of the fauna isolated in the Iberian Peninsula during the Pleistocene.
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