Новые виды муравьев рода Cataglyphis из Ирана
Alexander RADCHENKO1 and Omid PAKNIA2
1 - Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 64, Wilcza str.,
00-679, Warsaw, Poland; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 - Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 11,
D-89069 Ulm, Germany; e-mail: email@example.com
Two new species of the genus Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Iran
(Warszawa), Volume 60 (1), Pages 69-76.
Из Ирана по рабочим особям описаны 2 новых вида муравьёв-бегунков рода Cataglyphis: Cataglyphis stigmatus sp. nov. (Иранское побережье Персидского залива) и C. pubescens sp. nov. (Центральный Иран). Первый вид принадлежит к группе видов bicolor species group и хорошо отличается от всех известных видов этой группы его жёлтой окраской (кроме C. lunaticus), but well distinguishes from the latter by the longer scape, by the lower propodeum, which dorsal surface is distinctly longer than the posterior one, by the less
abundant standing hairs on the alitrunk and petiole, and especially by the much longer
propodeal spiracles. Таксономическая позиция вида C. pubescens менее ясна, он разделяет общие признаки с несколькими группами: cursor-, emeryi- и emmae-groups, в тоже время отличаясь от всех видов этих групп by the dense and long depressed pubescence on the head and alitrunk.
Key words: Ants, Formicidae, Formicinae, Cataglyphis stigmatus, C. pubescens, new
См. ниже частичный перевод статьи, список литературы.
Новый вид Cataglyphis stigmatus
Рис.2. Муравей Cataglyphis stigmatus: рабочий в профиль
(по: ©Radchenko, 2010)
Подсемейство Formicinae это одно из крупнейших подсемейств муравьёв с примерно 3,000 описанными видами в 62 родах (Shattuck,
Род Cataglyphis является одним из ключевых родов муравьёв в аридных регионах Старого Света. Он распространен главным образом в Палеарктике, с несколькими видами в пустынях и полупустынях Афротропики и Ориентальной области (Индия и Пакистан). В этом роде описано более 100 видов, и даже были описаны два социальных паразита (Agosti 1994, Radchenko 1997b, Bolton et al.
Члены этого рода относительно крупные муравьи (до 13 мм),
and all of them inhabit open dry habitats (steppes,
stony mountain slopes, various types of deserts and
semi-deserts, etc.), reaching in mountains up to 3500–
3700 m a.s.l.
Ранее род Cataglyphis делили на подрода (e.g., see Bolton 1995), but more
recently subgeneric division was refused and the genus
was separated into several species groups and species
complexes within them (Agosti 1990, Radchenko 1997a).
18 видов рода Cataglyphis было известно из Ирана до недавнего времени (Paknia et al. 2008,
2009), but in the newly collected material by one of the
co-authors (O. Paknia) we found specimens that belong
to two new species, which are described below. One of
them belongs to the bicolor species-group and well differs
from all members of this group by its totally yellow
colour, except of C. lunaticus Baroni Urbani described
from Turkey. The second new species most probably
is a member of the cursor species-group and has
unique characteristics in its dense, rather long and
coarse, silverish pubescence of the body.
ПРОМЕРЫ И ИНДЕКСЫ
HL – maximum length of head in dorsal view, measured
in a straight line from the most anterior
point of clypeus to the mid-point of occipital
HW – maximum visible width of head in dorsal view,
measured above or below of eyes (depending
SL – maximum straight-line length of scape from its
apex to the articulation with condylar bulb,
FS1, FS2, FS3 – length of 1st to 3rd funicular segments of
MP3, MP4, MP5, MP6 – length of 3rd to 6th segments of
OL – maximum diameter of eye,
GL – length of gena (seen in profile), measured
from the lower margin of eye to the articulation
AL – diagonal length of alitrunk (seen in profile),
measured from the anterior end of propodeum
to the posterior margin of propodeal lobes,
PnW – maximum width of pronotum in dorsal view,
PL – maximum length of petiole (in profile),
PW – maximum width of petiole (from above),
PH – maximum height of petiole (in profile),
HTL – maximum length of hind tibia,
PSL – maximum diameter of propodeal spiracle.
Cephalic index: CI = HW / HL,
Scape indices: SI1 = SL / HL; SI2 = SL / HW,
Ocular indices: OI1 = OL / HW; OI2 = OL / GL,
Funicular segment indices: FSI1 = FS1 / FS2; FSI2
= FS1 / (FS2+FS3),
Maxillary palps indices: MPI1 = MP4 / MP5; MPI2
= MP4 / (MP5+MP6),
Propodeal spiracle index: PSL / HW,
Alitrunk index: AL / PnW.
Cataglyphis stigmatus sp. nov.
From the Latin word “stigma” – spiracle,
to emphasize very long propodeal spiracles.
МАТЕРИАЛ. Holotype worker, Iran,
Province Bushehr, Mond protected area, 28°03’N,
51°36’E, 6 m a.s.l., 15 July 2007, arid area, leg. Omid
Paknia, collection code: MND-2128002 (MMTT); paratypes:
1 worker from the nest of holotype; 2 workers
from the same site, but collected on bait traps; 3 workers,
Iran, Province Bushehr, Naiband National Park,
27°18’N, 52°48’E, 19 July 2007, 6 m a.s.l., nest sample,
arid area, leg. Omid Paknia (IZK, MMTT).
ОПИСАНИЕ. РАБОЧИЕ (Figs 2–7). Species of medium
size, body length ca. 5–7 mm. Head with almost parallel
sides (below the eyes) and gradually convex occipital
margin, occipital corners not marked, head length
subequal to its width. Anterior clypeal margin convex,
without median notch. Clypeal setae distinctly shorter
than length of clypeus and joined near its anterior
margin. Eyes relatively small, their maximum diameter
1.2–1.5 times less than length of genae, situated
distinctly beyond the midlength of head margins.
Ocelli relatively big, forming equilateral triangle.
Antennae 12-segmented, scape long, distinctly longer
than head length, first funicular segment distinctly
shorter than the length of second and third segments
together. 3rd and 4th segments of maxillary palpes long,
subequal in length, 5th segment 1.5–1.6 times shorter
than 3rd or 4th ones, 6th segment is the shortest; 3rd segment
somewhat flattened, with abundant erect hairs on
inner margin, length of the longest hairs equal or only
a little longer than maximum diameter of the segment;
4th segment with similar pilosity, two apical segments
with abundant but shorter hairs. Mandibles with long
apical tooth, somewhat smaller preapical one and
three small basal teeth.
Alitrunk long and slender, mesonotum not raised
over pronotal level. Propodeum low, gradually arched,
its dorsal surface distinctly longer than posterior one.
Propodeal spiracles elongate-oval, while not distinctly
slit-like, and very long: their length exceeds (or at least
reaches) half of the propodeal height. Petiole obviously
nodiform, with rounded node dorsum.
Surface of whole body with dense microreticulation,
appears dull, although not strongly matt. Body with
sparse whitish standing hairs. Occiput with 5–6
quite long erect hairs, frons with 3–4, clypeus – with 2
similar hairs. Alitrunk and petiolar node with a few
sparse short hairs. Head and gaster with very sparse
and short decumbent pilosity, distance between hairs
longer than hairs’ length; surface of alitrunk (except of
mesonotal dorsum) and coxae with dense silverfish
pubescence. Tibiae with depressed whitish short setae
and additionally with a few yellowish bristles on inner
margin. Antennae with fine, short depressed pubescence,
without semi-erect hairs.
ОКРАСКА. Whole body yellow to orange-yellow.
Самки и самцы остаются неизвестными.
Measurements and indices see in Tables 1 and 2.
ЭКОЛОГИЯ. Distribution of this species is probably
limited to the northern coastal plains of the Persian
Gulf. This region is characterized by hot long summer
and mild winter, with mean annual temperature 27C°
and 236 mm precipitation. Phyto-geographically it belongs
to the subtropical region. Both nest samples of
C. stigmatus were collected in open arid areas. The
nest entrance had a small mound ca. 5 cm height and
ca. 15 cm in diameter. Specimens were active at the hottest
time of day, between 10.00 and 16.00. Workers were
attracted on baits both by tuna fish and sugar syrup.
Comparative diagnosis. Based on all main diagnostic
feature (e.g. nodiform petiole, body sculpture,
maxillary palpes structure, etc.; see also Agosti 1990,
Radchenko 1997a), C. stigmatus clearly belongs to the
bicolor species-group. Almost all species of this group
are bicoloured (with reddish head and alitrunk and
black gaster) or black with the only one previously
known exception – C. lunaticus which has entirely
yellow body. Consequently, C. stigmatus obviously differs
by colour from all known species of this group,
except of C. lunaticus. Despite we did not investigate
the type specimens of the latter species (it has been
described based on 2 workers from Turkey), the
detailed original description, including morphometric
data and excellent drawings, provided by Baroni Urbani
(1969) allow us to compare both species.
C. stigmatus well distinguishes from C. lunaticus
by the longer scape (SI1 > 1.20 vs < 1.10), by the lower
propodeum with the dorsal surface being distinctly
longer than the posterior one (the length of the dorsal
surface of propodeum in C. lunaticus is subequal to
the length of posterior one), by the less abundant
standing hairs on the alitrunk and petiole, by the somewhat
smaller size, and especially by the much longer
propodeal spiracles. We examined size of propodeal
spiracles in more than fifty Cataglyphis species,
including about twenty ones from the bicolor-group,
but could not found such big spiracles in any of the
Cataglyphis pubescens sp. nov.
Этимология. From the Latin word “pubescens ” –
pubescent, that means character of the depressed
pubescence on the head and alitrunk.
МАТЕРИАЛ. Holotype worker, Iran,
province Yazd, Siahkooh National Park, 32°35’55”N,
54°13’57”E, 987 m, 23 May 2008, nest sample, arid area,
leg. Omid Paknia, collection code: SIA 2459009
(MMTT); paratypes: 6 workers from the nest of holotype;
2 workers from the same locality but collected by
pitfall traps (IZK, MMTT).
ОПИСАНИЕ. Workers (Figs 8–13). Species of
small size, body length ca. 4 mm. Head length subequal
to its width; head slightly narrowed anteriorly, with
straight (not convex) sides (below the eyes), rounded
occipital corners and very weakly convex occipital
margin. Anterior clypeal margin almost straight, without
median notch. Clypeal setae subequal to clypeal
length and joined near its anterior margin. Eyes relatively
small, their maximum diameter ca 1.05–1.25
times less than length of genae, situated distinctly
beyond the midlength of head margins. Ocelli small,
forming equilateral triangle. Antennae 12-segmented,
scape relatively short, subequal or only slightly longer
than head length; first funicular segment relatively
long, only slightly shorter than length of second and
third segments together, remainder segments distinctly
longer than broad. 3rd and 4th segments of maxillary
palpes rather long, subequal in length, 5th segment
short, 1.5–1.9 times shorter than 4th ones, 6th segment
only slightly shorter that the 5th one; 3rd segment not
flattened, oval in cross-section, with not abundant
erect hairs, length of the longest hairs less than twice
longer than maximum diameter of the segment; 4th-6th
segments with abundant but somewhat shorter pilosity.
Mandibles with long apical tooth, somewhat smaller
preapical one and three small basal teeth.
Alitrunk relatively short and robust, mesonotum
not raised over pronotal level. Dorsal surface of propodeum
subequal to posterior one, both meet at a rounded
blunt angle. Propodeal spiracles small, slit-like.
Petiole squamiform, with distinct, rather thick scale.
Surface of head and propodeum with fine but dense
microreticulation, appears dull, promesonotum and
gaster with very fine superficial microreticulation,
Body with sparse whitish standing pilosity, while it
is somewhat more abundant than in the most of species
of the cursor- and emmae-group. Occiput with more
than 10 straight erect hairs, frons and clypeus without
such hairs. Alitrunk and coxae with scattered erect
hairs of different length, petiolar scale with a few short
hairs. Head (especially temples and occiput), mesopleura,
propodeum and coxae with dense pubescence,
formed by long, very abundant silverish appressed
hairs. Gaster with very sparse and short decumbent
hairs. Scape and funiculus with short, quite thick,
whitish subdecumbent hairs, tibiae with numerous,
rather long subdecumbent to suberect setae, and additionally
with less abundant yellowish bristles on inner
margin. Whole body black.
Самки и самцы остаются неизвестными.
Measurements and indices see in Tables 1 and 2.
ЭКОЛОГИЯ. This species was collected in the interior
region of the Central Persian desert basin. This area is
characterized by hot summer and cold winter with
mean annual temperature 19°C, and by the very low
annual precipitation – 67 mm only. This territory
belongs to the Irano-Turanian phyto-geographical
region. Most specimens were collected by hand from
a nest. Nest was built in an open area, having a small
entrance without surrounding structures.
Comparative diagnosis. C. pubescens shares
several features of the emeryi-, cursor- and emmae
species-groups of Cataglyphis. Thus, setae on the
anterior clypeal margin are very long, subequal to or
even somewhat longer than the length of clypeus, similarly
to C. emeryi (Karawajew), but unlike the latter
species these setae join close to the anterior clypeal
margin, as in the species of cursor-group (Radchenko
1997a, 1998). The first funicular segment is quite long,
about twice longer than the second one and only slightly
shorter than the second and third segments together:
this is one of the diagnostic features of workers of
the emmae-group (according Agosti 1990). On the other
hand, worker caste of C. pubescens is not dimorphic
(the latter is characteristic for the emmae-group
species); additionally, they have distinctly thicker petiolar
scale than C. emeryi. In general, workers of the
species of all three groups mentioned above are superficially
quite similar to one another, particularly their
whole body is blackish-brown to black, they have petiole
with distinct scale (i.e. it is not cuneiform or nodiform),
but their males well differ by the structure of
genitalia (Agosti 1990; Radchenko 1997a). Moreover,
workers of C. emmae and C. emeryi move slowly,
rather like Proformica Ruzsky species (C. emmae
has been originally described as a member of
Proformica) than Cataglyphis, while C. pubescens
move very fast, like most of the Cataglyphis species.
The proper taxonomic position of this species can be
definitively resolved when males will be found. Despite
this little taxonomic vagueness, C. pubescens clearly
differs from any knows species of the groups mentioned
above by the much more developed, dense
appressed pubescence on the head and alitrunk.
Cписок литературы из оригинальной статьи.
Agosti, D. 1990. Review and reclassification of Cataglyphis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Journal of Natural History, 24: 1457–1505.
Agosti, D. 1994. A new inquiline ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Cataglyphis and its phylogenetic relationship. Journal of Natural History, 28: 913–919.
Baroni Urbani, C. 1969. Una nuova Cataglyphis dei monti dell’Anatolia. Fragmenta entomologica, 6(3): 213–222.
Paknia, O., Radchenko, A., Alipanah, H. and M. Pfeiffer. 2008. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran. Myrmecological News, 11: 151–159.
Paknia, O. Radchenko, A. and M. Pfeiffer. 2009. New records of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Iran. Asian Myrmecology, 3: 29–38
Radchenko, A. G. 1997a. A review of ants of the genus Cataglyphis Foerster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Asia. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 76 (2): 424–442 (in Russia; English translation: Entomological Review (Washington), 1997, 77: 684–698).
Radchenko, A. G. 1997b. Cataglyphis zakharovi sp. nov. – the second socially parasitic species in the genus Cataglyphis Foerster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annales Zoologici, 46: 207–210.
Radchenko, A. G. 1998. A Key to ants of the genus Cataglyphis Foerster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Asia. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 77 (2): 502–508 (in Russia; English translation: Entomological Review (Washington), 1998, 78: 475–480).
©2010, Vladislav Krasilnikov (translation & supplement)
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