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Cataglyphis

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"Insectes sociaux", : -2008 2009, -2008 2009


29-05-2010 

Cataglyphis

Alexander RADCHENKO1 and Omid PAKNIA2
E-mail: agradchenko@hotmail.com

1 - Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 64, Wilcza str., 00-679, Warsaw, Poland; e-mail: agradchenko@hotmail.com
2 - Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm, Germany; e-mail: omid.paknia@uni-ulm.de


Two new species of the genus Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Iran



"Annales Zoologici"
2010,
(Warszawa), Volume 60 (1), Pages 69-76.

 
      2 - Cataglyphis: Cataglyphis stigmatus sp. nov. ( ) C. pubescens sp. nov. ( ). bicolor species group ( C. lunaticus), but well distinguishes from the latter by the longer scape, by the lower propodeum, which dorsal surface is distinctly longer than the posterior one, by the less abundant standing hairs on the alitrunk and petiole, and especially by the much longer propodeal spiracles. C. pubescens , : cursor-, emeryi- emmae-groups, by the dense and long depressed pubescence on the head and alitrunk.

      Key words: Ants, Formicidae, Formicinae, Cataglyphis stigmatus, C. pubescens, new species, Iran.

     

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      Cataglyphis stigmatus

 
.2. Cataglyphis stigmatus:
(: ©Radchenko, 2010)

 
 


     




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80- "Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute"

: Acromyrmex ameliae sp. n.

Azteca -

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Temnothorax

Tetramorium chefketi

Myrmica schencki-group

Probolomyrmex

Pachycondyla schoedli sp.n.

Camponotus festinatus

Protanilla schoedli sp.n. -

Cladomyrma scopulosa sp. nov.

Leptanilloides

Pyramica boltoni sp.nov.

Stenamma

Myrmica schenckioides nov. sp.

Leptogenys khammouanensis:

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      Formicinae 3,000 62 (Shattuck, 1992).

      Cataglyphis . , ( ). 100 , (Agosti 1994, Radchenko 1997b, Bolton et al. 2007).

      ( 13 ), and all of them inhabit open dry habitats (steppes, stony mountain slopes, various types of deserts and semi-deserts, etc.), reaching in mountains up to 3500 3700 m a.s.l.

      Cataglyphis (e.g., see Bolton 1995), but more recently subgeneric division was refused and the genus was separated into several species groups and species complexes within them (Agosti 1990, Radchenko 1997a).

      18 Cataglyphis (Paknia et al. 2008, 2009), but in the newly collected material by one of the co-authors (O. Paknia) we found specimens that belong to two new species, which are described below. One of them belongs to the bicolor species-group and well differs from all members of this group by its totally yellow colour, except of C. lunaticus Baroni Urbani described from Turkey. The second new species most probably is a member of the cursor species-group and has unique characteristics in its dense, rather long and coarse, silverish pubescence of the body.


     

      HL maximum length of head in dorsal view, measured in a straight line from the most anterior point of clypeus to the mid-point of occipital margin,

      HW maximum visible width of head in dorsal view, measured above or below of eyes (depending from species),

      SL maximum straight-line length of scape from its apex to the articulation with condylar bulb,

      FS1, FS2, FS3 length of 1st to 3rd funicular segments of antenna, MP3, MP4, MP5, MP6 length of 3rd to 6th segments of maxillary palps,

      OL maximum diameter of eye,

      GL length of gena (seen in profile), measured from the lower margin of eye to the articulation with mandible,

      AL diagonal length of alitrunk (seen in profile), measured from the anterior end of propodeum to the posterior margin of propodeal lobes,

      PnW maximum width of pronotum in dorsal view,

      PL maximum length of petiole (in profile),

      PW maximum width of petiole (from above),

      PH maximum height of petiole (in profile),

      HTL maximum length of hind tibia,

      PSL maximum diameter of propodeal spiracle.

      : Cephalic index: CI = HW / HL,

      Scape indices: SI1 = SL / HL; SI2 = SL / HW,

      Ocular indices: OI1 = OL / HW; OI2 = OL / GL,

      Funicular segment indices: FSI1 = FS1 / FS2; FSI2 = FS1 / (FS2+FS3),

      Maxillary palps indices: MPI1 = MP4 / MP5; MPI2 = MP4 / (MP5+MP6),

      Propodeal spiracle index: PSL / HW,

      Alitrunk index: AL / PnW.

     


      Cataglyphis stigmatus sp. nov.

      . From the Latin word stigma spiracle, to emphasize very long propodeal spiracles.

      . Holotype worker, Iran, Province Bushehr, Mond protected area, 2803N, 5136E, 6 m a.s.l., 15 July 2007, arid area, leg. Omid Paknia, collection code: MND-2128002 (MMTT); paratypes: 1 worker from the nest of holotype; 2 workers from the same site, but collected on bait traps; 3 workers, Iran, Province Bushehr, Naiband National Park, 2718N, 5248E, 19 July 2007, 6 m a.s.l., nest sample, arid area, leg. Omid Paknia (IZK, MMTT).

      . (Figs 27). Species of medium size, body length ca. 57 mm. Head with almost parallel sides (below the eyes) and gradually convex occipital margin, occipital corners not marked, head length subequal to its width. Anterior clypeal margin convex, without median notch. Clypeal setae distinctly shorter than length of clypeus and joined near its anterior margin. Eyes relatively small, their maximum diameter 1.21.5 times less than length of genae, situated distinctly beyond the midlength of head margins. Ocelli relatively big, forming equilateral triangle. Antennae 12-segmented, scape long, distinctly longer than head length, first funicular segment distinctly shorter than the length of second and third segments together. 3rd and 4th segments of maxillary palpes long, subequal in length, 5th segment 1.51.6 times shorter than 3rd or 4th ones, 6th segment is the shortest; 3rd segment somewhat flattened, with abundant erect hairs on inner margin, length of the longest hairs equal or only a little longer than maximum diameter of the segment; 4th segment with similar pilosity, two apical segments with abundant but shorter hairs. Mandibles with long apical tooth, somewhat smaller preapical one and three small basal teeth.

      Alitrunk long and slender, mesonotum not raised over pronotal level. Propodeum low, gradually arched, its dorsal surface distinctly longer than posterior one. Propodeal spiracles elongate-oval, while not distinctly slit-like, and very long: their length exceeds (or at least reaches) half of the propodeal height. Petiole obviously nodiform, with rounded node dorsum.

      Surface of whole body with dense microreticulation, appears dull, although not strongly matt. Body with sparse whitish standing hairs. Occiput with 56 quite long erect hairs, frons with 34, clypeus with 2 similar hairs. Alitrunk and petiolar node with a few sparse short hairs. Head and gaster with very sparse and short decumbent pilosity, distance between hairs longer than hairs length; surface of alitrunk (except of mesonotal dorsum) and coxae with dense silverfish pubescence. Tibiae with depressed whitish short setae and additionally with a few yellowish bristles on inner margin. Antennae with fine, short depressed pubescence, without semi-erect hairs.

      . Whole body yellow to orange-yellow.

      . Measurements and indices see in Tables 1 and 2.

      . Distribution of this species is probably limited to the northern coastal plains of the Persian Gulf. This region is characterized by hot long summer and mild winter, with mean annual temperature 27C and 236 mm precipitation. Phyto-geographically it belongs to the subtropical region. Both nest samples of C. stigmatus were collected in open arid areas. The nest entrance had a small mound ca. 5 cm height and ca. 15 cm in diameter. Specimens were active at the hottest time of day, between 10.00 and 16.00. Workers were attracted on baits both by tuna fish and sugar syrup.

      Comparative diagnosis. Based on all main diagnostic feature (e.g. nodiform petiole, body sculpture, maxillary palpes structure, etc.; see also Agosti 1990, Radchenko 1997a), C. stigmatus clearly belongs to the bicolor species-group. Almost all species of this group are bicoloured (with reddish head and alitrunk and black gaster) or black with the only one previously known exception C. lunaticus which has entirely yellow body. Consequently, C. stigmatus obviously differs by colour from all known species of this group, except of C. lunaticus. Despite we did not investigate the type specimens of the latter species (it has been described based on 2 workers from Turkey), the detailed original description, including morphometric data and excellent drawings, provided by Baroni Urbani (1969) allow us to compare both species.

      C. stigmatus well distinguishes from C. lunaticus by the longer scape (SI1 > 1.20 vs < 1.10), by the lower propodeum with the dorsal surface being distinctly longer than the posterior one (the length of the dorsal surface of propodeum in C. lunaticus is subequal to the length of posterior one), by the less abundant standing hairs on the alitrunk and petiole, by the somewhat smaller size, and especially by the much longer propodeal spiracles. We examined size of propodeal spiracles in more than fifty Cataglyphis species, including about twenty ones from the bicolor-group, but could not found such big spiracles in any of the investigated specimens.

     


      Cataglyphis pubescens sp. nov.

      . From the Latin word pubescens pubescent, that means character of the depressed pubescence on the head and alitrunk.

      . Holotype worker, Iran, province Yazd, Siahkooh National Park, 323555N, 541357E, 987 m, 23 May 2008, nest sample, arid area, leg. Omid Paknia, collection code: SIA 2459009 (MMTT); paratypes: 6 workers from the nest of holotype; 2 workers from the same locality but collected by pitfall traps (IZK, MMTT).

      . Workers (Figs 813). Species of small size, body length ca. 4 mm. Head length subequal to its width; head slightly narrowed anteriorly, with straight (not convex) sides (below the eyes), rounded occipital corners and very weakly convex occipital margin. Anterior clypeal margin almost straight, without median notch. Clypeal setae subequal to clypeal length and joined near its anterior margin. Eyes relatively small, their maximum diameter ca 1.051.25 times less than length of genae, situated distinctly beyond the midlength of head margins. Ocelli small, forming equilateral triangle. Antennae 12-segmented, scape relatively short, subequal or only slightly longer than head length; first funicular segment relatively long, only slightly shorter than length of second and third segments together, remainder segments distinctly longer than broad. 3rd and 4th segments of maxillary palpes rather long, subequal in length, 5th segment short, 1.51.9 times shorter than 4th ones, 6th segment only slightly shorter that the 5th one; 3rd segment not flattened, oval in cross-section, with not abundant erect hairs, length of the longest hairs less than twice longer than maximum diameter of the segment; 4th-6th segments with abundant but somewhat shorter pilosity. Mandibles with long apical tooth, somewhat smaller preapical one and three small basal teeth.

      Alitrunk relatively short and robust, mesonotum not raised over pronotal level. Dorsal surface of propodeum propodeum subequal to posterior one, both meet at a rounded blunt angle. Propodeal spiracles small, slit-like. Petiole squamiform, with distinct, rather thick scale.

      Surface of head and propodeum with fine but dense microreticulation, appears dull, promesonotum and gaster with very fine superficial microreticulation, appear shiny.

      Body with sparse whitish standing pilosity, while it is somewhat more abundant than in the most of species of the cursor- and emmae-group. Occiput with more than 10 straight erect hairs, frons and clypeus without such hairs. Alitrunk and coxae with scattered erect hairs of different length, petiolar scale with a few short hairs. Head (especially temples and occiput), mesopleura, propodeum and coxae with dense pubescence, formed by long, very abundant silverish appressed hairs. Gaster with very sparse and short decumbent hairs. Scape and funiculus with short, quite thick, whitish subdecumbent hairs, tibiae with numerous, rather long subdecumbent to suberect setae, and additionally with less abundant yellowish bristles on inner margin. Whole body black.

      .

      Measurements and indices see in Tables 1 and 2.

      . This species was collected in the interior region of the Central Persian desert basin. This area is characterized by hot summer and cold winter with mean annual temperature 19C, and by the very low annual precipitation 67 mm only. This territory belongs to the Irano-Turanian phyto-geographical region. Most specimens were collected by hand from a nest. Nest was built in an open area, having a small entrance without surrounding structures. Comparative diagnosis. C. pubescens shares several features of the emeryi-, cursor- and emmae species-groups of Cataglyphis. Thus, setae on the anterior clypeal margin are very long, subequal to or even somewhat longer than the length of clypeus, similarly to C. emeryi (Karawajew), but unlike the latter species these setae join close to the anterior clypeal margin, as in the species of cursor-group (Radchenko 1997a, 1998). The first funicular segment is quite long, about twice longer than the second one and only slightly shorter than the second and third segments together: this is one of the diagnostic features of workers of the emmae-group (according Agosti 1990). On the other hand, worker caste of C. pubescens is not dimorphic (the latter is characteristic for the emmae-group species); additionally, they have distinctly thicker petiolar scale than C. emeryi. In general, workers of the species of all three groups mentioned above are superficially quite similar to one another, particularly their whole body is blackish-brown to black, they have petiole with distinct scale (i.e. it is not cuneiform or nodiform), but their males well differ by the structure of genitalia (Agosti 1990; Radchenko 1997a). Moreover, workers of C. emmae and C. emeryi move slowly, rather like Proformica Ruzsky species (C. emmae has been originally described as a member of Proformica) than Cataglyphis, while C. pubescens move very fast, like most of the Cataglyphis species. The proper taxonomic position of this species can be definitively resolved when males will be found. Despite this little taxonomic vagueness, C. pubescens clearly differs from any knows species of the groups mentioned above by the much more developed, dense appressed pubescence on the head and alitrunk.


 




C .

  1. Agosti, D. 1990. Review and reclassification of Cataglyphis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Journal of Natural History, 24: 14571505.

  2. Agosti, D. 1994. A new inquiline ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Cataglyphis and its phylogenetic relationship. Journal of Natural History, 28: 913919.

  3. Baroni Urbani, C. 1969. Una nuova Cataglyphis dei monti dellAnatolia. Fragmenta entomologica, 6(3): 213222.

  4. Paknia, O., Radchenko, A., Alipanah, H. and M. Pfeiffer. 2008. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran. Myrmecological News, 11: 151159.

  5. Paknia, O. Radchenko, A. and M. Pfeiffer. 2009. New records of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Iran. Asian Myrmecology, 3: 2938

  6. Radchenko, A. G. 1997a. A review of ants of the genus Cataglyphis Foerster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Asia. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 76 (2): 424442 (in Russia; English translation: Entomological Review (Washington), 1997, 77: 684698).

  7. Radchenko, A. G. 1997b. Cataglyphis zakharovi sp. nov. the second socially parasitic species in the genus Cataglyphis Foerster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annales Zoologici, 46: 207210.

  8. Radchenko, A. G. 1998. A Key to ants of the genus Cataglyphis Foerster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Asia. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 77 (2): 502508 (in Russia; English translation: Entomological Review (Washington), 1998, 78: 475480).



 
 

©2010, Vladislav Krasilnikov (translation & supplement) 

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