Мирмекофития: отношения муравьев с растениями
Здесь я подобрал около 100 близких работ по муравьям и мирмекофитным растениям, в том числе используя поиск в базе Formis-2003 по слову
domatia, который дал 68 ссылок:
Поиск по другим словам из этой темы (растения и муравьи) дает такие результаты:
ant-epiphytes (4), ant-plant (279), ant-garden (14), domatia (68), elaiosome (66), extrafloral nectaries (211), food bodies (51), fungus
(724), mutualism (393), myrmecophile (1896), myrmecophyte (273), myrmechory (4), pollination (122), seeds (255)
Bailey, I. W. (1922). "V: The anatomy of certain plants from the Belgian Congo, with special reference to
Myrmecophytism. In: Ants of the American Museum Congo Expedition, a contribution to the myrmecology of Africa." Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45:
585-622, plates 26-45.
Первый серьезный обзор проблемы мирмекофитизма. Строение растений-мирмекофитов из Бельгийского Конго (Заир) и обзор литературы с
большой библиографией. Во введении, в частности говорится: In examining a dried specimen of the myrmecophytic Vitex staudtii (..), I was
impressed by the close correlation between the distribution of the lateral cavities (supposed excavations) and the phyllotaxy of the plant.
(..) So many features of unusual interest were encountered that it seemed advisable to study in detail the anatomy of other myrmecophytes from
tropical Africa. All of the available material of ant-inhabited species of Sarcocephalus (=Nauclea in part), Barteria, Plectronia, and Cuviera
(...) was very kindly turned over for my use. The myrmecodomatia of these genera proved to be fully as interesting as those of Vitex. (....)
Beattie, A. J. (1985). The evolutionary ecology of ant-plant mutualisms. New York, Cambridge University
Press - 182 pp.
Основные главы книги: 1.Introduction, 2.Origins and early evolution of ant-plant mutualism, 3.Plant protection by direct interaction,
4.Plant protection by indirect interaction, 5.Myrmecotrophy, 6.The dispersal of seeds and fruits by ants, 7.Ant pollination, 8.Food rewards
for ant mutualists, 9.Variation and evolution of ant-plant mutualism.
Beattie, A. J. (1989). "Myrmecotrophy: plants fed by ants." Trends Ecol. Evol. 4: 172-176.
Belin-Depoux, M. (1993). "Importance des nectaires extra-floraux dans les interactions plantes-fourmis."
Acta Bot. Gallica 140: 183-205.
Benson, W. W. (1985). Amazon ant-plants. Key environments. Amazonia. G. T. Prance and T. E. Lovejoy.
Oxford. xiv + 442 p., Pergamon Press: 239-266.
Главы, посвященные муравьям и мирмекофитам: - The structural and taxonomic diversity of Amazon ant plants. - How ants benefit
myrmecophytes. - How ants benefit non-myrmecophytes. - The evolution of ant domatia. - The evolution of myrmecophytes in ant-rich habitats.
- Plant-ants and the coevolution of plants and ant traits. (*со списком амазонских мирмекофитов и их муравьев) *[Tachigali это
Tachigalia. Муравьи родов Allomerus & Azteca заселяют растение Hirtella.]
Blatter, E. (1928). "Myrmecosymbiosis in the Indo-Malayan flora." J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 7: 176-185.
[*Presidential Address delivered before the Annual Meeting of the Indian Botanical Society at Calcutta, January, 1928. Citation:
(p.182) "I put in the beginning the question wether true myrmecosymbiosis has been observed in the Indo-Malayan vegetation. After what I have
explained I am afraid I have to answer in the negative. I do not wish to say that myrmecosymbiosis does not exist in Indo-Malaya, but I find
it impossible to admit that it has been proved to evidence in any particular case." Clerodendron = Clerodendrum; Iridiomyrmex =
Bluthgen, N. and J. Wesenberg (2001). "Ants induce domatia in a rain forest tree (Vochysia vismiaefolia)."
Biotropica 33: 637-642.
Brouat C., N. Garcia, Andary C., McKey D. (2001). "Plant lock and ant key: pairwise coevolution of an
exclusion filter in an ant-plant mutualism." Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B Biol. Sci. 268: 2131-2141.
*[We report on the strongest evidence yet for reciprocal adaptation of morphological characters in a species-specific ant-plant
mutualism. The plant character is the prostoma, which is a small unlignified organ at the apex of the domatia in which symbiotic ants excavate
an entrance hole. Each myrmecophyte in the genus Leonardoxa has evolved a prostoma with a different shape. By performing precise measurements
on the prostomata of 3 related myrmecophytes, on their specific associated ants and on the entrance holes excavated by symbiotic ants at the
prostomata, we showed that correspondence of the plant and ant traits forms a morphological and behavioral filter. We have strong evidence for
coevolution between the dimensions and shape of the symbiotic ants and the prostoma in one of the three ant-Leonardoxa associations.]
Brouat, C. and D. McKey (2000). "Origin of caulinary ant domatia and timing of their onset in plant
ontogeny: evolution of a key trait in horizontally transmitted ant-plant symbioses." Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 801-819.
Buckley, R. C. (1982). Ant-plant interactions in Australia. The Hague, W. Junk - 162 pp.
Главы книги: Davidson, E.A., Seed utilization by harvester ants; Westoby, M., Cousins, J.M., & Grice, A.C, Rate of decline of some
soil seed populations during drought in western New South Wales; Briese, D.T., Relationship between the seed-harvesting ants and the plant
community in a semi-arid environment; Campbell, M.H., Restricting losses of aerially sown seed due to seed-harvesting ants; Andersen, A.N.,
Seed removal by ants in the mallee of northwestern Victoria; Majer, J.D., Ant-plant interactions in the Darling botanical district of Western
Australia; Huxley, C.R., Ant-epiphytes of Australia; Westoby, M., Rice, B., Shelley, J.M., Haig, D., & Kohen, J.L., Plants' use of ants for
dispersal at West Head, New South Wales; Milewski, A.V., & Bond, W.J., Convergence of myrmecochory in mediterranean Australia and South
Africa; Fox, M.D., & Fox, B.J., Evidence for interspecific competition influencing ant species diversity in a regenerating heathland; Buckley,
R.C., Ant-plant interactions: a world review; Buckley, R.C., A world bibliography of ant-plant interactions.
Buckley, R. C. (1982). A world bibliography of ant-plant interactions. Ant-plant interactions in Australia.
R. C. Buckley. The Hague. x + 162 p., Dr. W. Junk Publishers. 4: 143-162.
Buckley, R. C. and [ed.] (1982). Ant-plant interactions: a world review. Ant-plant interactions in
Australia. R. C. Buckley. The Hague. x + 162 p., Dr. W. Junk Publishers. 4: 111-141.
Основные главы о муравьях и мирмекофитах: A. Predation by ants on plants: 1.Seed harvesting, 2.Leaf cutting; B. Mutualisms:
3.Extrafloral nectaries, 4.Food bodies and domatia, 5.Ant-epiphytes, 6.Ant-gardens, 7.Seed dispersal, 8.Pollination; C. Indirect interactions:
9.Ant-arthropod-plant systems, 10.Soil modification.
Cushman, J. H. and A. J. Beattie (1991). "Mutualisms: assessing the benefits to hosts and visitors." Trends
Ecol. Evol. 6: 193-195.
Davidson, D. W. and D. McKey (1993). "Ant-plant symbioses: stalking the Chuyachaqui." Trends Ecol. Evol. 8:
Davidson, D. W. and D. McKey (1993). "The evolutionary ecology of symbiotic ant-plant relationships." J.
Hym. Res. 2: 13-83.
A tabular survey of ant-plant symbioses worldwide summarizes aspects of the evolutionary ecology of these associations. Remarkable
similarities between ant-plant symbioses in disjunct tropical regions result from convergent and parallel evolution of similarly preadapted
ants and plants. Competition among ants has driven evolutionary specialization in plant-ants and is the principal factor accounting for
parallelism and convergence. As habitat specialization accompanied the evolutionary radiation of many myrmecophytes, frequent host shifts and
de novo colonizations by habitat-specific ants both inhibited species-specific coevolution and co-gladogenesis, and magnified the diversity of
mutualistic partners. The comparatively high species diversity of neotropical plant-ants and myrmecophytes probably results from two
historical factors. Most importantly, influenced by Andean orogeny, greater habitat disturbance by fluvial systems has created a mosaic of
habitat types unparalleled in other tropical regions; both myrmecophytes and plant-ants have diversified across habitat boundaries. Second,
the arrival of a new wave of dominant ants (especially Crematogaster) may have condensed the diversity of relatively timid plant-ants to a
greater degree in Africa and Asia than in the more isolated Neotropics. Regular trajectories in the evolutionary histories of plant-ants
appear to be driven principally by competition, in a manner analogous to the taxon cycles or pulses proposed for other groups. *[with
appendix: worldwide summary of all symbiontic ant-plant relationships known so far. Camponotus (incl. Colobopsis); Engramma
Davidson D. W., R. R. Snelling et Longino J.T. (1989). "Competition among ants for myrmecophytes and the
significance of plant trichomes." Biotropica 21 (1): 64-73.
Data on founding queens and established ant colonies of eight Peruvian rain forest myrmecophytes sugget that ants compete
interspecifically for host plants. Plant-ants show negative interspecific associations on plants with actively foraging colonies, but not on
plants housing only founding queens or incipient colonies. In several ant-plants, small and large individuals regularly have different ants.
Experimental evidence indicates that one ant species may deterministically replace another over time on Clidemia heterophylla, but the pattern
may have different explanations in other myrmecophytes. Among five myrmecophytes with long, dense stem trichomes, sizes of the most frequent
ant associates are positively correlated with trichome spacing. Ants larger than a threshold body size cannot move readily through the
trichomes without first cutting trail net-works. Many obligate plant-ants appear to be species requiring special forms of protection from
competing and predatory ants. Preferential nesting by such ants on plants with protective trichomes may explain the frequent co-occurence of
inhibitory trichomes and domatia in a number of ant-plant genera.
Davies S. J., S. K. Lum, Chan R., Wang L.K. (2001). "Evolution of myrmecophytism in western Malesian
Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae)." Evolution 55: 1542-1559.
Род растений Macaranga включает около 300 палеотропических видов деревьев, из которых 26 видов обнаружены в Малайзии как
мирмекофитные. The origin and diversification of myrmecophytism in Macaranga was investigated using phylogenetic analyses of morphological and
nuclear ITS DNA characters and studies of character evolution. Despite low ITS variation, the combined analysis resulted in a well-supported
hypothesis of relationships. Mapping myrmecophytism on all most parsimonious trees resulting from the combined analysis indicated that the
trait evolved independently between 2 and 4 times and was lost between one and 3 times for atotal of 5 changes. This hypothesis was robust
when tested against trees constrained to have 3 or fewer evolutionary transformations, although increased taxon sampling for the ITS analysis
is required to confirm this. Mapping morphological traits on the phylogeny indicated that myrmecophytism was not homologous among lineages;
each independent origin involved a suite of different specializations for ant-plant association. There was no evidence that myrmecophytic
traits underwent sequential change through evolution; self-hollowing domatia evolved independently from ant-excavated domatia, and different
food-body production types evolved in different lineages. The multiple origins of myrmecophytism in Macaranga were restricted to one small,
exclusively western Malesian lineage of an otherwise large and nonmyrmecophytic genus. Although the evolution of aggregated food-body
production and the formation of domatia coincided with the evolution of myrmecophytism in all cases, several morphological, ecological, and
biogeographic factors appear to have facilitated and constrained this radiation of ant-plants.]
Federle W., B. Fiala, et Maschwitz U. (1998). "Camponotus (Colobopsis) (Mayr 1861) and Macaranga (Thouars
1806): A specific two-partner ant-plant system from Malaysia." Trop. Zool. 11: 83-94.
Federle W., B. Fiala, Maschwitz U., Idris A.H. (1994). The first myrmecophytic 2-partner-system in the
genus Macaranga: The association between Macaranga puncticulata and a Camponotus (Colobopsis) in Malaysia. Les Insectes Sociaux. 12th Congress
of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects, Paris, Sorbonne, 21-27 August 1994. A. Lenoir, G. Arnold and M. Lepage. Paris,
Universitй Paris Nord: 175.
На Малайском полуострове два вида мирмекофитных растения рода Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) встречаются исключительно в заболоченных
лесах: M. pruinosa и M. puncticulata. M. pruinosa ассоциирован со специфическим видом муравьев рода Crematogaster. Probably two similar
Crematogaster species are involved, which can only be distinguished by morphometric characters of the queen ants. The ants feed on food bodies
mainly provided on the stipules of the plants and in addition cultivate trophobiotic coccids in stem domatia. Thus, the association represents
a 3-partner-system. In the syntopic species M. puncticulata we discovered a fully different myrmecophytic system. 65% of all M. puncticulata
were inhabited by an yet undescribed Camponotus (Colobopsis) of the saundersi-species group. Colonization of M. puncticulata was (contrary to
M. pruinosa) restricted to shady forest sites. The high percentage of colonization as well as the mode of colony foundation indicate an
obligatory association between the two species. Colonies are founded by queen ants which search for young host plants and chew entrance holes
into the hollow stem domatia. The plants also provide food bodies and in addition offer nectar from glands situated along the whole leaf
margin. In contrast to the so far investigated Crematogaster ants in Macaranga, Colobopsis sp. does not cultivate any trophobionts. This
association is therefore the first record of a two-partner Macaranga myrmecophytic system. It also differs from Macaranga-Crematogaster in
other characters, e.g. large colonies may inhabit several neighbouring trees polydomously. The workers also collect insects as protein
supplement, thus leaving their plants for foraging. Despite the differences, Colobopsis sp. fulfils the same protective role as already
described for Macaranga-Crematogaster associations.
Federle W., U. Maschwitz, et Fiala B. (1998). "The two-partner ant-plant system of Camponotus (Colobopsis)
sp. 1 and Macaranga puncticulata (Euphorbiaceae): natural history of the exceptional ant partner." Insect. Soc. 45: 1-16.
*[Camponotus (Colobopsis) sp. 1 is a member of the C. saundersi group. C. (Colobopsis) sp.1 never cultivated any scale insects. Ants
showed Homoptera tending behavior only in experiments in which the host plants had been completely deprived of extrafloral nectaries. ]
Fiala, B. (1988). Biologie, Funktion und Evolution eines malaysischen Myrmekophytiesystems: Die Assoziation
von Crematogaster borneensis (Form.: Myrmicinae) mit Baumen der Gattung Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae), Ph.D. dissert., J.W. Goethe University,
Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 229 p.
Основные главы: 1.Allgemeine Einleitung 2.Material und Methoden 3.Biologie der Symbiosepartner 4.Interaktion der Symbiosepartner
5.Vergleich der Macaranga-Arten 6.Diskussion 7.Zusammenfassung (S. 209) 8.Literatur 9.Anhang.
Fiala B., H. Grunsky, Maschwitz U., Linsenmair K.E. (1994). "Diversity of ant-plant interactions:
protective efficacy in Macaranga species with different degrees of ant association." Oecologia 97: 186-192.
Деревья рода Macaranga юго-восточной Азии развивают многообразные отношения с муравьями, начиная от факультативной до облигатной
мирмекофитии. Only myrmecophytic Macaranga offer nesting space for ants and are associated with a specific ant partner. The non-myrmecophytic
species are visited by a variety of different ant species which are attracted by extrafloral nectaries (EFN) and food bodies. Transitional
Macaranga species like M. hosei are colonized later in their development due to their stem structure. Before the colonization by their
specific Crematogaster partner the young plants are visited by different ant species attracted by EFN. These nectaries are reduced and food
body production starts as soon as colonization becomes possible. We demonstrated earlier that obligate ant partners can protect their
Macaranga plants against herbivore damage and vine cover. In this study we focused on non-specific interactions and studied M. tanarius and M.
hosei, representing a non-myrmecophyte and a transitional species respectively. In ant exclusion experiments both M. tanarius and M. hosei
suffered significantly higher mean leaf damage than controls, 37% versus 6% in M. hosei, 16% versus 7% in M. tanarius. M. tanarius offers both
EFN and food bodies so that tests for different effects of these two food rewards could be conducted. Plants with food bodies removed but with
EFN remaining had the lowest mean increase of herbivore damage of all experimental groups. Main herbivores on M. hosei were mites and
caterpillars. Many M. tanarius plants were infested by a shootborer. Both Macaranga species were visited by various ant species, Crematogaster
spp. being the most abundant. We found no evidence for any specific relationship. The result of this study strongly support the hypothesis
that non-specific, facultative associations with ants can be advantageous for Macaranga plants. Food bodies appear to have lower attractive
value for opportunistic ants than EFN and may require a specific dietary adaptation. This is also indicated by the fact that food body
production in the transitional M. hosei does not start before stem structure allows a colonization by the obligate Crematogaster species. M.
hosei thus benefits from facultative associations with a variety of ants until it produces its first domatia and can be colonized by its
Fiala B. and U. Maschwitz (1991). "Extrafloral nectaries in the genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in
Malaysia: comparative studies of their possible significance as predispositions for myrmecophytism." Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 44: 287-305.
В Малайзии 23 из 52 видов Macaranga связаны с муравьями (44 %). Все эти виды имеют окраинные железки (extrafloral nectaries) на
листьях. However, only the glands of non-myrmecophytic species function as nectaries, whereas liquids secreted by these glands in
myrmecophytic species did not contain sugar. The non-myrmecophytic species are visited by a variety of different ant species, whereas
myrmecophytic Macaranga are associated only with one specific ant-partner. Since these ants keep scale insects in the hollow stems, reduction
of nectary production in ant-inhabited Macaranga seems biologically significant. We interpret this as a means of a) saving the assimilates and
b) stabilization of maintenance of the associationґs specifity. A comparison with other euphorb species living in the same habitats as
Macaranga showed that in genera in which extrafloral nectaries are widespread, no myrmecophytes have evolved. Possesion of extrafloral
nectaries does not appear to be essential for the development of symbiotic ant-plant interactions. Other predispositions such as nesting space
might have played a more important role.
Fiala B. and U. Maschwitz (1992). "Domatia as most important adaptations in the evolution of myrmecophytes
in the paleotropical tree genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae)." Plant Syst. Evol. 180: 53-64.
The paleotropical tree genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) comprises all stages of interaction with ants, from facultative associations to
obligate myrmecophytes. In SE Asia food availability does not seem to be the limiting factor for the development of a close relationship since
all species provide food for ants in form of extrafloral nectar and/or food bodies. Only myrmecophytic Macaranga species offer nesting space
for ants (domatia) inside internodes which become hollow due to degeneration of the pith. Non-myrmecophytic species have a solid stem with a
compact and wet pith and many resin ducts. The stem interior of some transitional species remains solid, but the soft pith can be excavated.
The role of different ant-attracting attributes for the development of obligate ant-plant interactions is discussed. In the genus Macaranga,
the provision of nesting space seems to be the most important factor for the evolution of obligate myrmecophytism.
Fonseca C. R. (1993). "Nesting space limits colony size of the plant-ant Pseudomyrmex concolor." Oikos 67:
The size and structure of the colony of the stinging plant-ant Pseudomyrmex concolor occupying two morphologically distinct Tachigali
myrmecophytic host species was studied in order to discriminate between factors limiting ant colony size: specific hypotheses being a) food,
b) territory size and c) nesting space. From intraspecific comparisons it is suggested that the ant colony size is primarily controlled by the
total domatia space offered by the host plant. The space-limited hypothesis explains why plant-ants demonstrate host-limited foraging
territories. I analyse the space-limited hypothesis from the hostґs point-of-view by using a cost-benefit graphic model. It is suggested that
domatia size can be selected in a way that increases the plantґs net benefit from the mutualistic relationship.
Fonseca C. R. (1999). "Amazonian ant-plant interactions and the nesting space limitation hypothesis." J.
Trop. Ecol. 15: 807-825.
Gaume L. and D. McKey (1998). "Protection against herbivores of the myrmecophyte Leonardoxa africana
(Baill.) Aubrev. T3 by its principal ant inhabitant Aphomomyrmex afer Emery." C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. III Sci. Vie 321: 593-601.
Guarim Neto, G. and N. M. Asakawa (1978). "Estudo de Mirmecodomaceos em algumas especies de Boraginaceae,
Chrysobalanaceae, Melastomataceae e Rubiaceae." Acta Amazonica 8: 45-49.
[= Study of ant-plants (Myrmecophytes) in some species of Boraginaceae, Chysobalanaceae, Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae] Summary: In
this paper, we tried to test some hypothesis on the association of ґplants-antsґ (myrmecophytes) in species of Boraginaceae (Cordia nodosa
Lam.), Chrysobalanaceae (Hirtella duckel Hub.), Melastomataceae (Tococa coronata Benth. and Maieta guianensis Aublet) and Rubiaceae (Duroia
saccifera Hook.) that occur in the Reserve Biolуgica de Campina, INPA/SUFRAMA - km 60/2, Manaus-Caracarai Road. For this study we collected
the plant material and separated the myrmecodomatia for counting and identification of the ants. We also collected data on the habit and
habitat of the plants, the position and size of the myrmecodomatia, external temperature (ambient) and internal (myrmecodomatia), and the
variation in the numbers of ants sheltered. The ant species found were: Allomerus sp., Azteca sp. (1 and 2), Pseudomyrmex sp. (queen ant) and
Gullan P. J., R. C. Buckley, et Ward, P.S. (1993). "Ant-tended scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae:
Myzolecanium) within lowland rain forest trees in Papua New Guinea." J. Trop. Ecol. 9: 81-91.
Abstract: Eight species of Myzolecanium Beccari are reported from ant nests in stem cavities of living lowland rain forest trees in
Papua New Guinea. The coccids are confined to this microhabitat but are associated with a taxonomically broad range of ants and host trees.
Attendant ants belonged to six species in three genera and two subfamilies: Anonychomyrma Donisthorpe (Dolichoderinae), Crematogaster Lund
(Myrmicinae) and Podomyrma F. Smith (Myrmicinae). Host plants belonged to at least five families and included both apparently specialized
(with domatia) and unspecialized species. Saplings containing the nests of Anonychomyrma scrutator, A. sp. 1 and Podomyrma laevifrons were
dissected and the structure of nest chambers and their contents recorded. Only some chambers had entrance holes, but many were interconnected
by transverse passages. The coccids were in low numbers and fairly evenly distributed between ant-occupied chambers. The characteristics of
the Myzolecanium-ant association, the role of the coccids as trophobionts, and the nature of the plant associations are discussed.
Taxonomically, new combinations are proposed by P.J. Gullan for three species previously placed in Cryptostigma: Myzolecanium endoeucalyptus,
M. magnetinsulae, and M. robertsi. *[Tab. 1 with summary of associated coccid-, ant- and plant species.]
Gullan, P. J. and A. C. Stewart (1996). "A new genus and species of ant-associated coccid (Hemiptera:
Coccidae: Myzolecaniinae) from Canthium Lam. (Rubiaceae)." Mem. Qld. Mus. 39: 307-314.
Huxley, C. R. (1986). Evolution of benevolent ant-plant relationships. Insects and the plant surface. B.
Juniper and T. R. E. Southwood. London. viii + 360 p., Edward Arnold: 257-282.
Introduction: The relationships formed by ants with plants are quite distinct from those typically developed by other animal groups.
While other animals may consume plants, pollinate them or disperse them, ants are surprisingly infrequent in these roles. Yet when mutualistic
relationships other than pollination and dispersal are looked at, it is repeatedly ants which are found and almost never other animals. The
nature of these relationships will be described in this chapter along with a discussion of aspects of the biology of ants which may have
facilitated the evolution of so many mutualisms. *[e.g.: hollow stem domatia which are regularly inhabited by ants: fig. of Clerodendron,
Vitex, Duroia, Cordia, Humboldtia.]
Huxley, C. R., D. F. Cutler, et al. (1991). Ant-plant interactions. Oxford, Oxford University Press - 601
Основные главы: Stradling, D.J., An introduction to the fungus-growing ants, Attini; Powell, R.J. & Stradling, D.J., The selection and
detoxification of plant material by fungus-growing ants; Howard, J.J., Resource quality and cost in the foraging of leaf-cutter ants; Fowler,
H.G. & Claver, S., Leaf-cutter ant assemblies: effects of latitude, vegetation, and behaviour; Schupp, E.W. & Feener, D.H., Phylogeny,
lifeform, and habitat dependence of ant-defended plants in a Panamanian forest; Oliveira, P.S. & Brandгo, C.R.F., The ant community associated
with extrafloral nectaries in the Brazilian cerrados; Fiala, B., Maschwitz, U. & Tho, Y.P., The association between Macaranga trees and ants
in South East Asia; Longino, J.T., Azteca ants in Cecropia trees: taxonomy, colony structure, and behaviour; Davidson, D.W. & Fisher, B.L.,
Symbiosis of ants with Cecropia as a function of light regime; McKey, D., Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of a mutualism: Leonardoxa
(Caesalpiniaceae) and its associated ants; Ward, P.S., Phylogenetic analysis of pseudomyrmecine ants associated with domatia-bearing plants;
Letourneau, D.K., Parasitism of ant-plant mutualisms and the novel case of Piper; Jolivet, P., Ants, plants, and beetles; a triangular
relationship; Westoby, R.L., Hughes, L., & Rice, B.L., Seed dispersal by ants: comparing infertile with fertile soils; Andersen, A.N., Seed
harvesting by ants in Australia; Tobin, J.E., A neotropical rainforest canopy, ant community: some ecological considerations; Andersen, A.N.,
Parallels between ants and plants: implications for community ecology; Beattie, A.J., Problems outstanding in ant-plant interaction
Jacobs, M.(1966). "On domatia - the viewpoints and some facts." Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med.
Sci. 69 (3): 275-316.
Jeffree, C. E. (1986). The cuticle, epicuticular waxes and trichomes of plants, with reference to their
structure, functions and evolution. Insects and the plant surface. B. Juniper and T. R. E. Southwood. London, Edward Arnold: 23-
Kleinfeldt, S. E. (1986). Ant-gardens: mutual exploitation. Insects and the plant surface. B. Juniper and
T. R. E. Southwood. London, Edward Arnold: 283-294.
Kohl, H. (1909). "Die Ameisenfplanzen des tropischen Afrika mit besonderer Berucksichtigung ihrer
biologischen Verhaltnisse." Nat. Offenbar. 55: 89-111, 148-175.
Обзор наблюдений и теорий таких биологов как T. Belt, F. Muller, W. Schimper, H. V. Ihring, K. Schumann, E. de Wildeman, A. Muller, E.
Ule, L. Buscalioni, J. Huber, E. Rettig и Nieuwenhuis. Sima (=Tetraponera), Passifloraceae (=Barteria трактуется Колем как
Krombein, K. V. (1999). Biodiversity of the domatia occupants (ants, wasps, bees, and others) of the Sri
Lankan myrmecophyte Humboldtia laurifola Vahl (Fabaceae), Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 603, iv, 34 p.
Longino, J. T. (1991). Azteca ants in Cecropia trees: taxonomy, colony structure, and behaviour. Ant-plant
interactions. C. R. Huxley and D. F. Cutler. Oxford. xviii + 601 p., Oxford University Press: 271-288.
Описание таксономии и биологии муравьев рода Azteca и Cecropia, с более детальным рассмотрением примеров из Коста-
Maschwitz U., B. Fiala, et Linsenmair K.E. (1992). "A new ant-tree from SE Asia: Zanthoxylum myriacanthum
(Rutaceae), the thorny Ivy-Rue." Malayan Nature Journal 46: 101-109.
Abstract: Zanthoxylum myriacanthum, a small Rutaceous tree growing mainly in secondary hill forests in SE Asia, is a true
myrmecophyte. It possesses stem domatia in the form of hollow branches with slitlike openings. Branch hollows and entrance slits are produced
by the plant itself through pith degeneration and growth processes. If the entrance is not kept open by ants it closes again by growth of the
surrounding tissue after some time. The domatia are colonized opportunistically by different arboreous ants, e.g. Crematogaster and
Camponotus. Additionally many small extrafloral nectaries are found on the leaflets of Z. myriacanthum. Judging from herbarium studies and
literature records at least four more true ant trees are found in the genus Zanthoxylum namely Z. rhetsa in SE Asia, Z. conspersipunctatum, Z.
pluviatile and Z. vinkii in New Guinea. We could not confirm ant inhabitation in Drypetes pendula (Euphorbiaceae) on the Malay Peninsula,
which has also been recorded to be an ant-tree. [Citation: ґBoth ant colonies (Camponotus sp. und Crematogaster sp.) did not keep any
trophobiontic insects in the domatia. (...) Only the entrance slits were narrowed with carton mass. (...) A second large branch was inhabited
by Camponotus (Colobopsis) cf. saundersi. Here the workers had subdivided the interior of the stem hollows into many chambers by means of
Maschwitz, U., B. Fiala, et Linsenmair K.E. (1994). "Clerodendrum fistulosum (Verbenaceae), an unspecific
myrmecophyte from Borneo with spontaneously opening domatia." Blumea 39: 143-150.
Вид Clerodendrum fistulosum Becc. является настоящим мирмекофитом так как имеет гнездовые пустоты для муравьев в междоузлиях. В
противоположность с предыдущим сообщением авторов это наблюдение показало, что domatia открываются сами, давая приют разным видам муравьев.
На Sarawak, Malaysia, не обнаруженно облигатных отношений между C. fistulosum и муравьями. Другой вид C. deflexum (Малайский полуостров и
Суматра) предположительно также мирмекофитен.
Maschwitz, U. and B. Fiala (1995). "Investigations on ant-plant associations in the southeast Asian genus
Neonauclea merr (Rubiaceae)." Acta Oecol. 16: 3-18.
Maschwitz U., B. Fiala, Saw L.G., Norma-Rashid Y., Azarae H.I. (1994). "Ficus obscura var. borneensis
(Moraceae), a new non-specific ant-plant from Malesia." Malay. Nat. J. 47 (4): 409-416.
Фикус Ficus obscura var. borneensis является настоящим мирмекофитом. Он образует полости (domatia) в его ветвях, открывающихся
небольшими отверстиями-разрезами в междоузлиях и обычно не слишком вздуты. В этих domatia поселяются не только специфически связанные с
растениями виды муравьев, но и например, такие как Crematogaster spp., Cataulacus sp., Tetramorium sp., Cardiocondyla sp. и Camponotus sp..
Кроме того растениевыделяет сахаросодержащие растворы из внецветковых нектарников на нижней поверхности листьев. Проверка гербарных
экземпляров 37 других видов фикусов из юго-восточной Азии не обнаружила у них domatia.
McKey, D. (1991). Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of a mutualism: Leonardoxa (Caesalpiniaceae) and
its associated ants. Ant-plant interactions. C. R. Huxley and D. F. Cutler. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 310-334.
Chapters: Historical explanation in evolutionary ecology: (Phylogenetic analysis of co-evolution), (Testing for co-accomodation),
Leonardoxa and its ant associates: (Cladistic analysis of Leonardoxa), (Relationships of ants associated with Leonardoxa), Evolutionary
sequences in ant and plant characters related to interactions: (Evolutionary increase in leaf size in the Leonardoxa africana group),
(Correlation between leaf size and stem size), (Did similar pre-adaptations precede domatia in other myrmecophytes?), Coevolution of
Leonardoxa and myrmelachistine formicine ants: (Association by descent or colonization?), (Evidence for co-accomodation between Leonardoxa and
ant associates (Match between shape of the prostoma and shape of the ant associate), (Match between nectary size and number in plants and
tending of homopterans by associated ants)), Stabilizing selection, phylogenetic inertia, and the functional interdependency of old and new
adaptations in Leonardoxa.
Merrill E. D. (1920). "Myrmeconauclea, a new genus of rubiaceous plants from Palawan and Borneo." Philipp.
J. Sci. 17 (4): 375-376.
[Citation: Myrmeconauclea strigosa: (......) It differs radically from Nauclea (=Neonauclea in part) in its concrete fruits forming a
syncarp and as radically from Sarcocephalus (=Nauclea Linn. in part) in its winged seeds. (......) The generic name is derived from the Greek
myrmekos, ant, and Nauclea, a genus to which the present one is closely allied, as a certain percentage of the branchlets always present
hollow swellings, perforated on one side, which are inhabited by colonies of small ants.]
Meunier L., A. Dalecky, Berticat C., Gaume L., McKey D. (1999). "Worker size variation and the evolution of
an ant-plant mutualism: Comparative morphometrics of workers of two closely related plant-ants, Petalomyrmex phylax and Aphomomyrmex afer
(Formicinae)." Insect. Soc. 46: 171-178.
Michelangeli F. A. (2000). "A cladistic analysis of the genus Tococa (Melastomataceae) based on
morphological data." Syst. Botany 25: 211-234.
Moog, J. and U. Maschwitz (1994). Associations of Cladomyrma (Hym., Formicidae, Formicinae) with plants in
SE Asia. Les Insectes Sociaux, 12th congress of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects IUSSI, Paris, Sorbonne, 21-27 August.
A. Lenoir, G. Arnold and M. Lepage, Universitй Paris Nord: 173.
The Oriental plant-ant genus Cladomyrma inhabits several host-plants of different families and orders, comprising trees and woody
climbers in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. The colony founding queens chew holes into young plant internodes and hollow them out as nest
cavities. Later, these initial nest chambers become enlarged by workers which excavate the twigs to provide shelter and substrate for brood
and symbiotic Coccoidea (soft scales and mealy bugs). In Pen. Malaysia the tree Saraca thaipingensis (Caesalpiniaceae) is regularly inhabited
by Cladomyrma petalae. Other Saraca species (S. declinata, S. indica, S. hulletti) are not colonized by Cladomyrma. The host-plant S.
thaipingensis appears not to be a specialized ant-plant since it does not provide specialized structures for housing ants, such as swollen
twigs or hollow stems with prostomata. However, it produces extrafloral nectaries on young leaves which attract many ants exept Cladomyrma.
Nevertheless, the activity of C. petalae workers on the plant surface is concentrated on young plant tissue. Peliminary data suggest a reduced
herbivore damage level on young Saraca leaves patrolled by Cladomyrma workers. C. petalae was also found nesting in sympatric woody climbers
Strychnos vanprukii (Loganiaceae) and Spatholobus sp. (Fabaceae). Whereas only a fraction of the Strychnos population is inhabited by this
plant-ant, Spatholobus lianas were never found without Cladomyrma. At an early developmental stage young Spatholobus climbers produce
conspicuous internodal swellings (myrmecodomatia) which provide large stem diameters necessary for colony founding queens. In Pen. Malaysia
and Borneo the genus Cladomyrma is known to inhabit many more host-plants: Millettia nieuwenhuisii (Fabaceae), Crypteronia griffithii
(Crypteroniaceae) and Neonauclea spp. (at least 2 species; Rubiaceae). Recently, we found evidence that additional host-plants do occur in
Flacourtiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Rutaceae. Since the genus Cladomyrma occupies so many unrelated plant species we assume that host-switching
has occured several times.
O'Dowd, D. J. (1982). "Pearl bodies as ant food: an ecological role for some leaf emergences of tropical
plants." Biotropica 14: 40-49.
O'Dowd, D. J. and M. F. Willson (1991). "Associations between mites and leaf domatia." Trends Ecol. Evol.
Renner, S. S. and R. E. Ricklefs (1998). "Herbicidal activity of domatia-inhabiting ants in patches of
Tococa guianensis and Clidemia heterophylia." Biotropica 30: 324-327.
Rico Gray, V., J. T. Barber, et al. (1989). "An unusual animal-plant interaction: feeding of Schomburgkia
tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants." Am. J. Bot. 76: 603-608.
*[The ants were collected, labeled with C14, & frozen in Louisiana. The experimental part was done with the orchids in Mexico.]
Ridsdale, C. E. (1975). "A synopsis of the African and Madagascan Rubiaceae - Naucleeae." Blumea 22 (3):
*[according to Ridsdale Sarcocephalus vanderguchtii is synonym to Nauclea vanderguchtii. In Bequaert 1922, p. 460, Sarcocephalus sp.
(later S. vanderguchtii) is reported to have very slight, inconspicuous domatia. Thus, the synonymization remains douptful. No other Nauclea
species are known to possess myrmedomes, since all domatia bearing Nauclea are transferred to Neonauclea (Ridsdale 1989). Ridsdale (pers.
comm. in Leiden, July 94) has not seen the original plant specimen and suspects this to be an error.) Achim Moog]
Ridsdale, C. E. (1978). "A revision of the tribe Naucleeae s.s. (Rubiaceae)." Blumea 24 (2): 307-366.
Проведена мировая ревизия трибы Naucleeae, в которой признается 21 род, включая новые для науки (Ochreinauclea, Ludekia,
Diyaminauclea, Khasiaclunea, Adinauclea, Sinoadina, Pertusadina, Haldina), которые разделены на три подтрибы: Anthocephalinae, Naucleinae, и
Adininae, subtrib. nov. Определители видов и родов, описания видов Азии. Новые виды: Myrmeconauclea stipulacea, Ludekia borneensis и
Pertusadina malaccensis. *[according to Ridsdale Sarcocephalus macrocephalus (K. Schumann) is synonym to Nauclea orientalis. In Haviland 1897
and Bequaert1922, p. 459, S. macrocephalus from the Philippines is reported to have domatia. Thus, the synonymization remains douptful.
According to the original description by K. Schumann (cited in Bequaert) this plant seems to be Myrmeconauclea strigosa (=Nauclea strigosa in
Haviland). Ridsdale (pers. comm. in Leiden, July 94) has not seen the original plant specimen and suspects this to be an error.) Achim Moog]
Ridsdale, C. E. (1989). "A revision of Neonauclea (Rubiaceae)." Blumea 34 (1): 177-275.
Иллюстрированная ревизия 65 видов рода Neonauclea (Rubiaceae - Naucleeae) с определителем всех видов. The 61 Malesian species are
treated in full, 28 new species are described and 5 new combinations are made. [Citations: The genus is predominantly Malesian, the extra-
Malesian species from continental Asia have already been considered (Rid. 1978) (...) Myrmedomes (=Domatia): In some species the internodes of
the ultimate branches are swollen and the hollow chambers are inhabited by ants. (...) Myrmedomous species have as yet not been recorded from
the Malay Peninsular, Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands and New Guinea.]
Sanjappa, M. (1986). "A revision of the genus Humboldtia Vahl (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae)." Blumea 31
Summary: The genus Humboldtia is revised and a key to the six species and one variety recognized; their descriptions and distributions
are given. All the taxa are confined to Western Ghats in India, exept H. laurifolia, which extends southwards into Sri Lanka. [Citation:
Humbodtia laurifolia: internodes of branchlets thickened upwards, obtusely quadrangular, or terete, glabrous, curiously fistular , often
provided with perforations, the cavities are usually inhabited by ants. (...) Introduced in gardens of Indonesia.]
Schnell, R. (1966). "Remarques morphologiques sur les myrmecophytes." Mem. Soc. Bot. France 1966: 121-
Shattuck, S. O. (1992). "Review of the dolichoderine ant genus Iridomyrmex Mayr with descriptions of three
new genera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 31: 13-18.
Abstract: The generic placement of species assigned to the dolichoderine ant genus Iridomyrmex is reviewed. Three new genera
(Ochetellus, Papyrius, Philidris) are described, one genus (Doleromyrma) is removed from synonymy, and two genera (Anonychomyrma, Linepithema)
are redefined and expanded, resulting in numerous new combinations. Worker-based characterisations are given for each genus. [Citation:
Philidris: Species of this tropical forest group are closely associated with plants, and often live in myrmecodomatia. Distribution of
Philidris: Extreme eastern India and east through South-East Asia to the Philippine Islands, northern Australia and the Solomon Islands.]
Steenis, C. G. G. J. v. (1967). "Miscellaneous botanical notes XVIII." Blumea 15 (1): 145-155.
[Citation: 118. A remarkable myrmecophyte, Callicarpa saccata, from Sarawak and some allied species (Verbenaceae): ґIts most
remarkable feature is the sac-like auricles at the base of the blade, reminding exactly of those of some tropical American Melastomataceae
belonging to the group of genera Tococa, Myrmedone, Maieta, Microphysca, and Calophysa, which have a similar formicarium.]
Tennant, L. E. (1994). Ecology of a facultative ant-plant "mutualism", Ph.D. dissert., Harvard University,
*[Includes extensive literature review in tables 1.1 & 1.2 on behavioral and life history charasteristic of obligate and faculative
plant inhabiting ants. Table 1.5 lists plant species, ant species, and neotropical countries, including many unpublished observations by
Vasconcelos, H. L. (1991). "Mutualism between Maieta guianensis Aubl., a myrmecophytic melastome, and one
of its ant inhabitants: ant protection against insect herbivores." Oecologia 87: 295-298.
Summary: The hypothesis that ants (Pheidole minutula) associated with myrmecophytic melastome Maieta guianensis defend their host-
plant against herbivores was investigated in a site near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. M. guianensis is a small shrub that produces leaf pouches
as ant domatia. Plants whose ants were experimentally removed suffered a significant increase in leaf damage compared with control plants
(ants maintained). Ants patrol the young and mature leaves of Maieta with the same intensity, presumably since leaves of both ages are equally
susceptible to herbivore attack. The elimination of the associated ant colony, and consequent increase in herbivory, resulted in reduced plant
fitness. Fruit production was 45 times greater in plants with ants than in plants without ants 1 year after ant removal.
Vasconcelos, H. L. (1993). "Ant colonization of Maieta guianensis seedlings, an Amazon ant-plant."
Oecologia 95: 439-443.
Abstract: The ants Pheidole minutula and Crematogaster sp. are obligate inhabitants of the ant-plant Maieta guianensis. They nest and
reproduce exclusively in this and a few other Amazon melastome ant-plants. Experimental transplants of uncolonized M. guianensis seedlings to
sites at different distances from established colonies of these two ant species, which are sources of founding queens, have shown that
distance is an important factor affecting seedling colonization by ants. The proportion of colonized seedlings and the average number of
colonizations per seedling, both by Crematogaster sp. and P. minutula, decreased as distance from established colonies increased. Seedling
colonization was also affected by rainfall and fewer seedlings were colonized during the dry season, especially by P. minutula, than during
the rainy season. P. minutula queens usually cooperate with each other during colony foundation, a behaviour not observed among founding
queens of Crematogaster sp. Competition between these two ant species for host-plants appears to be strong as 63,6 % of the seedlings
colonized by Crematogaster sp. were also colonized by P. minutula during a 15-month observational period. However, there was generally an
interval of a few months between colonizations, possibly giving the first species to colonize the plant a better chance of domination on this
Ward, P. S. (1991). Phylogenetic analysis of pseudomyrmecine ants associated with domatia-bearing plants.
Ant-plant interactions. C. R. Huxley and D. F. Cutler. Oxford. xviii + 601 p., Oxford University Press: 335-352.
Chapters: a) Phylogenetic relationships among the Pseudomyrmecinae. b) Nesting behaviour and plant associations of the pseudomyrmecine
ants. c) Discussion: (Patterns of association) (Origins of pseudomyrmecine-plant relationships) (Characteristics of obligate plant-ants) d)
Conclusions (in part): Phylogenetic analysis of the Pseudomyrmecinae indicates that obligate plant-ants, which comprise almost 20 % of the
estimated 250-300 extant species in the subfamily, have arisen at least twelve times.
Ward, P. S. (1999). "Systematics, biogeography and host plant associations of the Pseudomyrmex viduus group
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Triplaris- and Tachigali-inhabiting ants." Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 126: 451-540.
*[P. crudelis, P. deminutus, P. eculeus, P. ferox, P. hospitalis, P. insuavis, P. ultrix, & P. vitabilis are n.sp... P. latinodus, P.
endophytus syn. nov., & P. damnosus are syn. of P. concolor... P. emarginatus is a syn. of P. dendroicus... P. dichrous, P. bierigi, & P.
crenulatus are syn. of P. kuenckeli... P. cholericus, P. crucians, & P. auripes are syn. of P. malignus... P. symbioticus is a n.syn. of P.
mordax, n.comb., stat.rev... P. nigrescens n.syn., P. coronatus Wheeler syn. nov., & P. coronatus Enzmann are syn. of P. penetrator,
stat.rev... P. bradleyi Wheeler & P. bradleyi Enzmann are syn. of P. tachigaliae... P. boxi Wheeler & P. boxi Enzmann are syn. of P.
triplaridis... P. arborissanctae, P. cordobensis syn.nov., P. rurrenabaquensis syn.nov., & P. ecuadorianus are syn. of P. triplarinus... P.
caroli, P. opacior syn.nov., P. sapii, P. ulei, P. baileyi, P. tigrinus, P. biolleyi, & P. trigonus are syn. of P. viduus... Pseudomyrmex
fortis stat.nov... P. acaciarum Wheeler & P. acaciorum Enzmann are syn. of P. ita... P. heterogyna syn. nov., P. castus syn. nov., & P.
humboldi syn. nov. are syn. of P. pictus... P. huberi is a syn. of P. rubiginosus... P. vinneni stat.nov... Key includes P. viduus group
and all Pseudomyrmex species found in Triplaris or Tachigali plants.]
Wheeler, W. M. (1910). "A new species of Aphomomyrmex from Borneo." Psyche 17: 131-135.
[Citation: Aphomomyrmex hewitti: ґDescribed from 2 females, 6 maxima workers, (..), taken by Mr. John Hewitt at Bidi, Borneo, during
August 1907,ґin the swollen internode of a shrubґ. This remark (...) shows that A. hewitti is a timid tree-ant, which habitually nests in
small colonies in vegetable cavities.ґ] *[andrei, (Aphomomyrmex andrei = Dimorphomyrmex andrei = Cladomyrma andrei, Aphomomyrmex hewitti =
Cladomyrma hewitti, Dimorphomyrmex janeti = Gesomyrmex chaperi, Dimorphomyrmex theryi = Gesomyrmex hoernesi, ]
Wheeler, W. M. and J. C. Bequaert (1929). "Amazonian myrmecophytes and their ants." Zool. Anz. 82: 10-
*[Описания мирмекофитных растения Амазонии и их муравьев: Moraceae: Cecropia (Azteca); Rubiaceae: Duroia (Allomerus, Azteca,
Brachymyrmex, Solenopsis), Remijia, Patima; Melastomataceae: Tococa (Azteca, Strumigenys, Neoponera (the latter also in dead twigs),
Paratrechina, Pheidole); Maieta (Pheidole), Cordia (with spindle-shaped, hollow myrmecodomatia only at the tops of the branches: Neoponera
(usually in dead twigs)); Crematogaster (Orthocrema) in parabiosis with Camponotus (Myrmothrix) in epiphyte covered ant-gardens. Paratrechina
Wildeman, E. d. (1919). "La myrmecophilie dans le genre Uncaria (Rubiaceae), en Afrique." C. R. Sean. Soc.
Belge Biol. 82: 1076-1078.
Yu, D. W. (1997). Parasitic castration of the ant-plant Cordia nodosa (Boraginaceae) and the consequences
for a metapopulation model of species coexistence. Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Yu, D. W. and N. E. Pierce (1998). "A castration parasite of an ant-plant mutualism." Proc. R. Soc. London
Ser. B Biol. Sci. 265: 375-382.
Муравьи Allomerus cf. demerarae кастрируют свое растение-мирмекофит Cardia nodosa, которое в результате производит больше domatia, но
почти zero фруктовой продукции. Вид Allomerus cf. demerarae заселяет 77.8% этих растений, 3 неописанных вида Azteca заселяеют 10.6%, а вид
Myrmelachista sp. заселяет 1.7% этих растений.