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Myrmica ants of the Old World

"Insectes sociaux", Муравьиные НОВОСТИ: Виды-2009 и 2010, Статьи-2008 и 2010

Добавлено 23-12-2010 

Myrmica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Old World

Alexander G. Radchenko1 and Graham W. Elmes
E-mail: agradchenko@hotmail.com

1 - Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 64, Wilcza str., 00-679, Warsaw, Poland; e-mail: agradchenko@hotmail.com

Myrmica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Old World

Price: 150 € + postage (from January 31, 2011)

Pre-publication price: 120 € + postage (till January 31, 2011)
via surface mail: 11 EUR; via airmail: 16 EUR - to Europe; 20 EUR - to North America and Africa; 25 EUR - to Central & South America and Asia; 38 EUR - to Australia and Oceania
Natura optima dux Foundation, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa, Poland
Monika Malcher, orders@miiz.waw.pl, monikama@miiz.waw.pl

"FAUNA MUNDI.", Warszawa, December 2010,
165 x 235 mm, hardcover, ca 800 pages, 332 figs, 162 maps
Publisher: Natura optima dux Foundation

      Первая монографическая ревизия рода Мирмика (Myrmica) Старого Света, включающая описания 142 современных и 5 ископаемых видов. Даны определительные ключи для 7 регионов и 332 иллюстрации для них, 162 карты распространения.

Radchenko A. G., Elmes G. W.; Myrmica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Old World / Museum and Institute of Zoology Polish Academy of Science. — Warszawa. Warszawska Drukarnia Naukowa, 2010. — 789 p. (totally about 1700 figures). — ISBN 978-83-930773-1-1, ISSN 2081-4615. — (Fauna MUNDI. Vol. 3)

It is the first taxonomic review of the entire Old World fauna of the widespread temperate ant genus Myrmica that is famed for its interactions with many social parasites of high nature conservation interest, e.g. Large Blue butterflies (Phengaris spp.)
      This about 800 pages monograph is more than a traditional taxonomic review, it gives the history of the taxonomic treatment of Myrmica, summarises the current knowledge of the social biology and ecology of the genus, analyses the zoogeography of the various species and outlines the author’s views on the evolution and speciation within the genus.
      The authors currently recognise 142 extant and 5 extinct species from the Old World and they provide Identification Keys to the species for each of seven geographic regions. This should make the Keys more user-friendly for non-specialists.
      The locations of the type specimens are noted in the taxonomic catalogue, which is arranged alphabetically by species, as are the accurate line-drawings of every species. These illustrate features such as the shape and sculpture of the head and body, used in the identification keys. This arrangement makes it easy to find the data for any particular species. There is a full list of all names ascribed to genus Myrmica and a table of synonyms from among the valid names is provided. The etymology of many of the names is interesting and provides insights to thoughts of the original authors as does the short biographies are made for all authors of more than one valid species of Myrmica.
      The authors believe that there are many species of Myrmica yet to be discovered, particularly in the Indo-Oriental regions and in the southern mountains of Eurasia. This book provides the essential starting point for future studies. Radchenko is one of Europe’s leading ant taxonomists and an expert on the ant fauna of the Palaearctic, while Elmes is an ecologist and eco-physiologist who has made a particular study of Myrmica ants over a 45 year career.

      Prof. Jeremy Thomas (Professor of Ecology, Oxford University) writes:
      “This is a much-needed publication. The genus Myrmica ... has been shown to be a key component of all natural and semi-natural (terrestrial) biotopes, and to have many interactions with other invertebrate and plant species that have high conservation value. It is one of the few genera of insects that ‘shapes’ the composition of whole ecosystems.”
      “Such is the importance of this ant genus to biology, that scarcely a week that goes by without a paper being published on the socio-biology, behaviour, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, evolutionary biology or interactions of Myrmica: to my knowledge, Nature and Science have published eight papers on these topics since 2000.”
      “One of the main problems for conservationists, land managers and non-ant-specialist biologists is that, outside of Western Europe, the taxonomy and identification of the genus is poorly known and keys – where they exist – are very old and not available in English or other widely understood languages ... quite apart from the scholarly yet readable text, the superb illustrations set new standards for ant taxonomists, and are notable for their accuracy and clarity (and beauty). This alone will be of immense help to the many practical biologists who need to work with and to understand Myrmica species.”

      Dr. Karsten Schonrogge (Head of Myrmecophily Research, CEH, UK) writes:
      "Graham Elmes was a former colleague and I know that he is the foremost expert on the ecology and biology of Myrmica ants, while Alexander Radchenko has an unrivalled grasp of the world-wide taxonomy of this fascinating and important ant genus. Together they have surely produced a unique synthesis of the biology and taxonomy of Myrmica."

KEY WORDS: ants; taxonomic review Old World fauna ant genus Myrmica

Таким образом, это возможно, главное событие и итог двухвекового исследования муравьёв рода Myrmica. В Палеарктике известно около 140 видов рода, в мире - около 200 видов (Bolton, 1995, Radchenko & Elmes, 1998, 1999, 2001...). В последнее время сразу несколько ученых исследовали и ревизовали Палеарктические виды рода Myrmica (например, Elmes 1978, Seifert 1988, 2003, Radchenko & Elmes 2003 ...)

9 новых для науки видов (2008) рода Myrmica из группы Myrmica Pachei описаны из Китая и Кашмира: Myrmica sculptiventris n. sp., M. schulzi n. sp., M. phalacra n. sp., M. varisculpta n. sp., M. hlavaci n. sp., M. pleiorhytida n. sp., M. multiplex n. sp., M. yunnanensis n. sp., M. heterorhytida n. sp.

7 новых для науки видов (2008) рода Myrmica описаны из Китая: M. curiosa n. sp., M. mixta n. sp., M. pararitae n. sp., M. poldii n. sp., M. sinoschencki n. sp., M. weii n. sp., M. polyglypta n. sp.

- 2 новых вида (2007): Myrmica paradoxa n. sp. и Myrmica eocenica n. sp.

- 1 новый вид (2008): Myrmica xavieri Radchenko, Elmes & Savolainen, 2008 (Испания)

Муравьи Myrmica punctiventris и M. crassirugis Неарктики
- 4 новых вида (2007): M. semiparasitica n. sp., M. punctinops n. sp., M. crassirugis n. sp., M. wheelerorum n. sp.

Обзор ископаемых муравьев рода Myrmica из янтаря
- 2 новых вида (2007): Myrmica paradoxa n. sp. и Myrmica eocenica n. sp.

Ревизия Палеарктических видов муравьев группы Myrmica schencki-group
- 3 новых вида (2006): M. siciliana n. sp. (Сицилия), M. onoyamai n. sp. (Япония), M. inucta n. sp. (с.-з.Казахстан), Myrmica schoedli Radchenko, Elmes & Viet 2006 (Вьетнам)

Социальный паразит Myrmica из Голландии.
- 1 новый вид (2005): Myrmica schenckioides Boer & Noordijk, 2005

- 1 новый вид (2004): Myrmica tobiasi

Myrmica afghanica nov. sp. из Афганистана.
- 2 новых вида (2003): M. afghanica n. sp. (Афганистан), Myrmica pelops Seifert, 2003 (Греция)

- 4 новых вида (2002): Myrmica anatolica, Myrmica jennyae, Myrmica tamarae, Myrmica tulinae (Турция).

"Гиганты" M. titanica, M. yamanei из Вьетнама
- 8 новых видов (2001): Myrmica angulata, M. draco, M. hyungokae, M. koreana, M. sinensis, M. taibaiensis, M. titanica, M. yamanei (8 новых видов из Китая и окрестностей).

- 10 новых видов (1999): Myrmica brancuccii, M. nititda, M. ordinaria, M. petita, M. rhytida, M. villosa, M. vittata, M. wardi, M. williamsi, M.wittmeri (10 новых видов со склонов Гималайских гор).

- 6 новых видов (1998): M. boltoni, M. collingwoodi, M. martensi, M. rigatoi, M. urbanii (5 новых видов со склонов Гималайских гор), Myrmica mirabile (с Тайваня).

      Другие наши обзоры:

Ловушки для обнаружения Аргентинских муравьев

Wilson: муравьиные инвазии во времена пиратов

"Муравей с Марса" и новое подсемейство

Фруктовая мимикрия муравьев, вызванная паразитом

Проблемы использования муравьев Formica в биозащите леса >>>

Состав семьи   Гнездостроение   Питание   Голова   Грудь   Брюшко   Усики Щупики Домовые Социальные паразиты   Древесные гнезда Холмики и купола   Мирмекофилы  

Значение муравьев   Защита леса   Тли   Почва   Семена   Питание   Ужаления Болезни Домовые Инвазии   Мирмекофилы Листовертки   Пилильщики   Пяденицы   Шелкопряды


      Другие наши обзоры по методике:



Список литературы по Мирмикам.

  1. Arnoldi, K.V. (1976) Муравьи рода Myrmica Latr. Средней Азии и Южного Казахстана. Зоол.журн., 55(4), 547–558.
    Описаны новые виды и подвиды: M. juglandeti, M. kryzhanovskii, M. lobicornis foreliella, M. lobicornis kirgisorum, M. minuta iskanderi, M. minuta tarbinskii, M. orthostyla, M. sancta tshuliensis, M. tianshanica, & M. tianshanica alajensis.

  2. Collingwood, C.A. (1961) The 3rd Danish expedition to Central Asia. Zoological Results 27. Formicidae (Insecta) from Afghanistan. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, 123(1960), 52–79.
    Описание мирмекофауны Афганистана

  3. Elmes, G. W. (1973). "Miniature queens of the ant Myrmica rubra L. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Entomologist 106: 133-136.

  4. Elmes, G. W. (1973). "Observations on the density of queens in natural colonies of Myrmica rubra L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Anim. Ecol. 42: 761-771.

  5. Elmes, G. W. (1974). "Colony populations of Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl. (Hymenoptera Formicidae)." Oecologia 15: 337-343.

  6. Elmes, G. W. (1974). "The effect of colony population on caste size in three species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 21: 213-229.

  7. Elmes, G. W. (1975). Population studies on the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with special reference to southern England, Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 334 p. Available from: BLL, Ref. No. D16007/76

  8. Elmes, G. W. (1976). Comparative ecology of Myrmica species, Annual Report of the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, 1975 :38-39.

  9. Elmes, G. W. (1976). Populations of Myrmica (Formicidae) living on different types of Calluma moorland - a semi natural habitat of southern England, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Soc. Insects Anthropogenic Environ., Warsaw, p. 21-30.

  10. Elmes, G. W. (1976). "Some observations on the microgyne form of Myrmica rubra L. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 23: 3-22.

  11. Elmes, G. W. (1978). "A morphometric comparison of three closely related species of Myrmica (Formicidae), including a new species from England." Syst. Entomol. 3: 131-145.

  12. Elmes, G. W. (1978). "Populations of Myrmica (Formicidae) living on different types of Calluma moorland - a semi-natural habitat of southern England." Mem. Zool. 29: 41-60.

  13. Elmes, G. W. (1980). "Queen number in colonies of ants of the genus Myrmica." Insect. Soc. 27: 43-60.
    The effects upon the structure of a population of Myrmica colonies is examined under the assumption that colonies adopt a strategy of persistent exclusive monogyny. Th effects of various queen mortality curves are examined. It is concluded that field data does not support a hypothesis based on this strategy and it is suggested that all Myrmica colonies recruit replacement queens. The effects of different queen recruitment efficiencies are examined for haplometrotic and pleometrotic species. It is concluded that if all species have a capacity to recruit queens then all are potentially secondarily polygynous. The evolutionary significance of the social status of Myrmica ants is discussed.

  14. Elmes, G. W. (1981). "An aberrant form of Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander (Hym. Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 28: 27-31.

  15. Elmes, G. W. (1982). Intra-colonial competition in ants, with special reference to the genus Myrmica. The biology of social insects. Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the IUSSI, Boulder, Colorado, August 1982. M. D. Breed, C. D. Michener and H. E. Evans. Boulder, CO. 420 p., Westview Press: 212-216.

  16. Elmes, G. W. (1982). "The phenology of five species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera Formicidae) from South Dorset, England." Insect. Soc. 29: 548-560.
    1. The patterns of worker activity of five Myrmica spp. have been measured by pitfall trapping. There were no marked differences between the species except for a generally higher activity level of M. sabuleti Meinert during the Winter months. 2. M. ruginodis Nyl. was caught at the coldest site and M. sabuleti at the hottest sites. This is consistent with their performance under laboratory conditions. 3. Fertile queens of all species can be caught at any time during the active season. The importance of this observation to the social biology of Myrmica is discussed.

  17. Elmes, G. W. and A. M. Abbott (1981). "Colony populations of Myrmica schencki Emery collected in Jutland, Denmark." Nat. Jutl. 19: 53-56.
    The populations of 30 colonies of Myrmica schencki Emery were collected from the Mols laboratory in Denmark. The population data and biometry of individuals are given. It is concluded that M. schencki is normally, but not rigorously monogynous and a discrepancy with similar data for the American form Myrmica schencki ssp. emeryana is discussed. Color variation were observed in several colonies and one colony contained four fertilized Myrmica scabrinodis Nyl. queens. In this case they were acting as temporary facultative parasites.

  18. Elmes, G. W. and R. T. Clarke (1981). A biometric investigation of variation of workers of Myrmica ruginodis Nylander (Formicidae). Biosystematics of social insects. Systematics Association Special Volume No. 19. P. E. Howse and J. L. Clйment. London. 346 p., Academic Press: 121-140.
    Variation of 12 morphometrics were measured for 690 workers of M. ruginodis. A nested analysis of variance was used to break down the variation into that due to differences within colonies, between colonies within sites, between sites within countries and between countries. The effect of variation in the size of queen in the colonies was measured and eliminated from the analysis. Worker size was found to account for about 75% of the variation between workers, therefore the morhometrics were standardized for size and re-analysed. The results showed that variation in a colony's mean queen size had a considerable effect upon the variation between colonies. Also variations in shape (size-adjusted morphometrics)were mostly within colonies. The results are discussed and three explanations are put forward.

  19. Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1981). "The quantity and quality of overwintered larvae in five species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Zool. (Lond.) 193: 429-446.
    The numbers of queens, workers and larvae were recorded for a sample of hibernating colonies from five different species of Myrmica. The larvae were divided into three size classes. The frequencies and distribution of larvae within these size classes have been compared between species and between queened and queenless colonies. A sample of each larval class was reared to the pupal stage and the resulting castes were recorded. The Discussion compares all the species with Myrmica rubra and attempts to explain the differences observed for the different species.

  20. Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1982). "Variations in populations of Myrmica sabuleti and M. scabrinodis (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) living in Southern England." Pedobiologia 23: 90-97.
    The density and colony populations of Myrmica sabuleti Meinert and M. scabrinodis Nyl., living at two English sites are compared with other available data for these species. One of the sites was the last to support a British population of the large blue butterfly, Maculiea arion L. There was no evidence of inter colonial competition at these sites. The large blue site supported very small colonies of both ant species although the colonies were at the average density recorded for all sites.

  21. Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1982). "A population study of the ants Myrmica sabuleti and Myrmica scabrinodis, living at two sites in the South of England. I. A comparison of colony populations." J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 651-664.
    (1) The size and structure of colonies of Myrmica sabuleti Meinert living at two well-grazed grassland sites have been investigated for several years by excavation of colonies. One site was on chalk grassland and the other on acid grassland. The latter supported a population of M. scabrinodis Nyl. which was also investigated. The acid site was the last known British site for Maculinea arion (large blue butterfly) which is parasitic upon M. sabuleti for part of its life cycle. (2) Means are given for six parameters of colony population. These are compared for site, annual and within-site differences. It is shown that colonies producing reproductives are significantly larger than those that do not. There are significant variations within sites between years but these are small compared to between-site and interspecific differences. (3) Regression analysis enables some deductions to be made concerning the regulation of sexual production. Sexuals are reared at the expense of new workers. Both male and new worker production is closely related to worker population whereas gyne production seems more related to workers size. (4) The differences between and within populations are discussed in terms of nest site insolation.

  22. Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1982). "A population study of the ants Myrmica sabuleti and Myrmica scabrinodis living at two sites in the south of England. II. Effect of above-nest vegetation." J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 665-680.

  23. Elmes, G. W. (1983). "Some experimental observations on the parasitic Myrmica hirsuta Elmes." Insect. Soc. 30: 221-234.
    Myrmica hirsuta Elmes is an uncommon social parasite of Myrmica sabuleti Meinert. Collection of several hundred M. sabuleti nests indicate that less than 2% are infested by M. hirsuta. M. sabuleti usually live in grassland so that the presence of the parasite can be detected only by nest excavation; practically, this means that it is not possible to obtain experimental material other than by chance. The experiments reported in this paper have been made on material collected in this way and consequently they are not as well balanced or replicated as would be desired were unlimited experimental stock available. Despite these reservations the experiments do show some interesting differences between the social physiology of M. hirsuta and its host. M. hirsuta has two types of queen, either small unfertilised individuals that have no real effect on a colony or larger fertilised forms that have a 'queen effect' on M. sabuleti larvae that is very similar to that of M. sabuleti queens. The larger queens are produced from medium sized larvae that have had a period of hibernation. The smaller type of queen most likely develop from small larvae that had not grown sufficiently before hibernation or perhaps from larvae partly suppressed by 'queen effect': These are in effect a type of worker caste. Generally M. hirsuta larvae seem unaffected by the suppression type 'queen effect'. M. hirsuta queens start egg-laying earlier than M. sabuleti queens and seem to be able to retard the onset of oviposition by the host queens when cultured together. Indirect evidence suggests that the availability of eggs as food may be important to the survival of the parasitic larvae: A conjectural life cycle is proposed for M. hirsuta, based upon the present meagre evidence.

  24. Elmes, G. W. (1987). "Temporal variation in colony populations of the ant Myrmica sulcinodis. 1. Changes in queen number, worker number and spring production." J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 559-571.
    (1)Colonies of the ant, Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl., were excavated in early summer 1979-85 at two heathland sites in southern England. (2) The number of workers was, on average, 120 per colony, but varied with time and between the sites; this is interpreted in terms of a regenerating heathland habitat. The number of new workers, reared in spring, varied annually; much of the variation is explained by the size of the colonies and most of the remainder by the effects of the weather during the larval growth period. Spring humidity is a good descriptor of new worker production, although humidity itself is merely a combined expression of several other climatic variables. The number of queens in the colony had no effect on the number of new workers that were reared. New queens are reared by les than 25% of the colonies. (3) The number of queens varied annually; once the effect due to variation in the size of colonies was removed, the number followed a cycle best described by a sine-wave. The wave has a periodicity of 4-5 years and an amplitude of about three queens (1-3.3 geometric averages) in a colony of average size. This may be the first demonstration of such a cycle. The mechanisms that may generate this are discussed briefly: the periodicity may represent the average longevity of queens.

  25. Elmes, G. W. (1987). "Temporal variation in colony populations of the ant Myrmica sulcinodis. II. Sexual production and sex ratios." J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 573-583.
    (1)The number and sex ratio of reproductive castes reared by two populations of Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl. over 7 years since 1979 are reported. On average, 40% of the colonies were small and reared no sexuals. In the remainder, sexual production was very variable, having a small significant correlation with worker number (+ve) and queen number (-ve). Sexual production differed significantly from year to year, but not between sites. The colonies form four groups, according to whether they rear gynes, males, both or neither. Total spring production was compared for these. The results are consistent with data for other Myrmica species. (2) The sex ratio varied between years and sites. Both populations had a male bias, which was greatest in highly polygynous colonies and least in large colonies, as is expected under kinship theory. The social regulation of sexual production at the colony level may be difficult to modify by natural selection, which operates instead on the colony structure required to maximize the species' breeding success in its chosen habitat. If secondary polygyny is an adaptation that ensures a colony's survival in a variable habitat, then many colonies exist for long periods in sub-optimal nest sites. Male bias is the global cost of the polygynous lifestyle for these species. In such populations only the largest and reproductively most successful colonies might approach the optimal sex ratio; these colonies of M. sulcinodis averaged a 1:1 sex ratio (3:1 females by dry weight).

  26. Elmes, G. W. (1989). "The effect of multiple queens in small groups of Myrmica rubra." Actes Coll. Insect. Soc. 5: 137-144.

  27. Elmes, G. W. and J. A. Thomas (1985). "Morphometrics as a tool in identification: a case study of Myrmica from France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Actes Coll. Insect. Soc. 2: 97-108.
    Proceedings of the IUSSI French Section, Annual Meeting, 19-22 Sept 1984, Diepenbeek, Belgium. *[Populations of 3 species of Myrmica were examined at a site in the Haute Savoie region of France; the site is notable for the presence of 2 species of the rare butterfly genus Maculinea. M. rubra and M. scabrinodis were easily identified but, initially, the third species could be separated only by differences in the gynes and males. The species was assumed to be M. vandeli bondroit. The workers of this species are difficult to separate from M. scabrinodis and the males can easily be mistaken for M. sabuleti. Only the queens are readily recognisable, being very similar to M. scabrinodis, but generally much larger and darker. This paper shows how an examination of morphometrics confirmed the identification of the species and enabled us to determine workers with a known reliability.]

  28. Elmes, G. W. and J. A. Thomas (1987). Die Biologie und Цkologie der Ameisen Gattung Myrmica. Tagfalter und ihre Lebensraume: Arten, Gefahrdung, Schutz. W. Geiger. Basle, Schweizerischer Bund fьr Naturschutz: 404-409.

  29. Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1983). "A comparison of the effect of a queen upon the development of large hibernated larvae of six species of the genus Myrmica (Hym. Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 30: 134-148.
    The results are given from experiments on the effect of a queen upon the growth and development of large hibernated larvae of six species of Myrmica. These show that: - In all the species queens suppress the development of gynes (young unfertilised queens) from large larvae and tend to decrease the time between onset of growth and pupation. - The mechanism by which workers recognize and suppress gyne potential larvae has been studied in detail previously for Myrmica rubra L. by M.V.Brian. This is now shown to be the same in the other common Myrmica species; larvae of any species can be suppressed by the queens and workers of any other species. - The larvae of the different species develop at different rates regardless of the species of the workers rearing them. The larvae rank:- Myrmica ruginodis Nyl. (both vars. macrogyna and microgyna), Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl., M. rubra, Myrmica scabrinodis Nyl. and Myrmica sabuleti Meinert - in order from the fastest to the slowest grower. - The species also rank in this order when they all rear the same larval species, regardless of the species of larvae, showing that this is a trait of the nurse workers as well as a trait of the larvae.

  30. Elmes, G. W. and J. C. Wardlaw (1983). "A comparison of the effect of temperature on the development of large hibernated larvae of four species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 30: 106-118.
    The effect of temperature upon the development of large hibernated larvae of 4 Myrmica species has been tested experimentally. Over the viable temperature range of 15-25° C, it was found that: 1. There are no differences between the species in the effect of temperature upon development times. All fit the model log Dev. time = a - b T° C with a common value for b. This gives an effective Q10 of about 3.1 which agrees with respirometrical estimates for worker ants. 2. The value for the intercept (a) differs significantly between most species confirming the intrinsic difference that has been demonstrated at a constant 22.5° C in previous work. The development times of larvae can be ordered from fastest to slowest being: M. ruginodis Nyl., M. rubra L., M. scabrinodis Nyl. and M. sabuleti Meinert. At any temperature it takes M. sabuleti about 1.5 times as long as M. ruginodis to grow from a large hibernated larva to a white pupa. 3. No large differences in larval survival or gyne production could be detected between the temperature treatments. There was an indication that most species survived best at about 22° C. 4. The results are discussed briefly in terms of the ecological distribution of the 4 species in the South of England. 5. The possible effects of a fluctuating temperature regime are discussed, it is suggested that the amplitude of fluctuations may not have any great effect whereas the periodicity could be more important.

  31. Elmes, G. W. and N. R. Webb (1985). "Swarm of Myrmica ruginodis Nylander (Hym., Formicidae) in a light trap." Entomol. Mon. Mag. 121: 108.

  32. Elmes, G. W. (1991). "Mating strategy and isolation between the two forms, macrogyna and microgyna, of Myrmica ruginodis (Hym. Formicidae)." Ecol. Entomol. 16: 411-423.

  33. Elmes, G. W. (1991). "The social biology of Myrmica ants." Actes Coll. Insect. Soc. 7: 17-34.

  34. Elmes, G. W. (1994). "A population of the social parasite Myrmica hirsuta Elmes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) recorded from Jutland, denmark, with a first description of the worker caste." Insect. Soc. 41: 437-442.

  35. Elmes, G. W. and M. V. Brian (1991). "The importance of the egg-mass to the activity of normal queens and microgynes of Myrmica rubra L. (Hym. Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 38: 51-62.

  36. Elmes, G. W. and L. Keller (1993). Distribution and ecology of queen number in ants of the genus Myrmica. Queen number and sociality in insects. L. Keller. Oxford. 439 p., Oxford University Press: 294-307.

  37. Elmes, G. W. and J. Petal (1990). "Queen number as an adaptable trait: evidence from wild populations of two red ant species (genus Myrmica)." J. Anim. Ecol. 59: 675-690.

  38. Elmes, G. W., J. A. Thomas, et al. (1991). "Larvae of Maculinea rebeli, a large-blue butterfly, and their Myrmica host ants: wild adoption and behaviour in ant-nests." J. Zool. (London) 223: 447-460.

  39. Elmes, G. W., J. C. Wardlaw, et al. (1991). "Larvae of Maculinea rebeli, a large-blue butterfly and their Myrmica host ants: patterns of caterpillar growth and survival." J. Zool. (London) 224: 79-92.

  40. Elmes, G. W. and M. V. Brian (1991). "The importance of the egg-mass to the activity of normal queens and microgynes of Myrmica rubra L. (Hym. Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 38: 51-62.

  41. Elmes, G. W. and A. G. Radchenko (1998). "Ants of the genus Myrmica from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Chin. J. Entomol. 18: 217-224.
    Myrmica arisana, Myrmica formosae, Myrmica mirabile, Myrmica serica

  42. Elmes, G. W., A. G. Radchenko, et Kim, B.J. (2001). "Two new species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea." Korean J. Biol. Sci. 5: 107-112.
    Myrmica hyungokae, Myrmica korea

  43. Elmes, G. W. and D. J. Stradling (1991). "In memoriam: Michael Vaughan Brian M.A. Sc.D. OBE (1919-1990)." Insect. Soc. 38: 331-332.

  44. Elmes, G. W., T. Akino, et al. (2002). "Interspecific differences in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of Myrmica ants are sufficiently consistent to explain host specificity by Maculinea (large blue) butterflies." Oecologia 130: 525-535.

  45. Elmes, G. W., A. G. Radchenko, et al. (2001). "Two new species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea." Korean J. Biol. Sci. 5: 107-112.

  46. Elmes, G. W., J. A. Thomas, et al. (1998). "The ecology of Myrmica ants in relation to the conservation of Maculinea butterflies." J. Insect Conserv. 2: 67-78.

  47. Elmes, G. W., J. C. Wardlaw, et al. (1999). "Site latitude influences on respiration rate, fat content and the ability of worker ants to rear larvae: A comparison of Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations over their European range." Eur. J. Entomol. 96: 117-124.
    Myrmica rubra is a northern, temperate Palaearctic ant species with a geographical range that extends from the Atlantic coast of Europe to central Asia. In Europe, its range covers > 25° of latitude where it lives under a variety of climates that vary from extreme oceanic in the west, to continental in the east. Colonies nest in the soil and their life cycles are known to be highly dependent on ambient temperature and soil moisture. We hypothesised that the brood-rearing behaviour of populations might be locally adapted to climate and that we might detect differences when the ants were reared under "common-garden" conditions. Brood-rearing behaviour was compared for 38 colonies of M. rubra drawn from 13 populations representing a range of 6 latitudes: all 6 were represented in eastern Europe and 2 in western Europe. A sample of ants from each colony was used to estimate respiration rate, body mass and fat content at the start of the experiment in spring (immediately post hibernation) and at the end of the experiment (mid summer). Respiration had a linear relationship with latitude, with northern populations having greater respiration rate in spring compared to southern populations. It is suggested that this is an adaptation to different seasonality over the species' range that results in the "more active" northern workers rearing fewer brood to maturity more quickly than southern workers. Fat content, a measure of worker "quality", had a parabolic relationship with latitude with mid latitude colonies having the fattest workers. Fatter workers appeared to rear heavier brood. This probably represented a functional response to environment with populations living at "edge of range" sites being physiologically more stressed and performing brood-rearing tasks less well than centre of range populations. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a consistent, intra-specific trend for variation in the social physiology of an ant species over its geographic range.

  48. Emery, C. (1908) Beitrage zur Monographie der Formiciden des palearktischen Faunengebietes. III. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1908, 165–205.

  49. Emery, C. (1921) Hymenoptera, Fam. Formicidae, subfam. Myrmicinae. In: Wystman, P. (Ed) Genera Insectorum., Fasc. 174 A, pp. 1–94.

  50. Mayr, G. (1889) Insecta in itinere Cl. Przewalski in Asia Centrali novissime lecta. XVII. Formiciden aus Tibet. Труды Русского Энтомологического Общества, 24, 278–280. Описание мирмекофауны Тибета по материалам экспедиции Пржевальского

  51. Radchenko, A.G. (1994a) Таксономическая структура рода Myrmica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Евразии. Сообщение 1. Зоол.журн., 73(6), 39–51 [English translation: Taxonomic structure of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Eurasia. Communication 1. Entomological Review (Washington), 1995, 74(3), 91–106].

  52. Radchenko, A.G. (1994b) Определительная таблица муравьев рода Myrmica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) центральной и восточной Палеарктики. Зоол.журн., 73(7–8), 130–145 [English translation: A Key to species of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Central and Eastern Palaearctic. Entomological Review (Washington), 1995, 74(3), 154–169].

  53. Radchenko, A.G. (1994c) Обзор групп rubra, rugosa, arnoldii, luteola и schencki рода Myrmica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) центральной и восточной Палеарктики. Зоол.журн., 73(11), 122-132 [English translation: A survey of species of Myrmica of groups of rubra, rugosa, arnoldii, luteola and schencki (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Central and Eastern Palaearctic. Entomological Review (Washington), 1995c, 74(8), 122–132].

  54. Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. (1998) Taxonomic revision of the ritae species-group of the genus Myrmica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Himalaya. Vestnik zoologii, 32(4), 3–27.
    Описаны новые виды: M. boltoni, M. collingwoodi, M. martensi, M. rigatoi, M. urbanii = n.sp. Другие близкие виды: Myrmica formosae, Myrmica gigantea, Myrmica indica, Myrmica margaritae, Myrmica ritae, Myrmica serica.

  55. Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. (1999) Ten new species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Himalaya. Вестник зоол., 33(3), 27–46.
    Описаны новые виды со склонов Гималайских гор: Myrmica brancuccii Radchenko, Elmes & Collingwood, M. nititda Radchenko & Elmes, M. ordinaria Radchenko & Elmes, M. petita, M. rhytida, M. villosa, M. vittata, M. wardi, M. williamsi, M.wittmeri.

  56. Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. (2001) A taxonomic revision of the ant genus Myrmica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Himalaya. Entomologica Basiliensia, 23, 237–276.
    Myrmica angulata Radchenko, Zhou & Elmes, M. draco Radchenko, Zhou & Elmes, M. hyungokae Elmes, Radchenko & Kim, M. koreana Elmes, Radchenko & Kim, M. sinensis Radchenko, Zhou & Elmes, M. taibaiensis Wei, Zhou & Liu, M. titanica Radchenko & Elmes, M. yamanei Radchenko & Elmes

  57. Radchenko, A., Elmes, G. W. & Savolainen, R. 2008: Myrmica xavieri sp. n., a new ant species (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) from Spain. - Entomol. Fennica 19: 49-54. Here we describe a new ant species from Spain, Myrmica xavieri. We place it in the Myrmica lobicornis species group of which three species are previously known in the Iberian Peninsula: M. lobicornis Nylander, M. wesmaeli Bondroit, and M. lobulicornis Nylander. Of these, M. xavieri most closely resembles M. wesmaeli. M. xavieri is likely an Iberian endemic, a relict of the fauna isolated in the Iberian Peninsula during the Pleistocene.

  58. Ruzsky, M.D. (1905). Муравьи России (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Казань, 1–799.

  59. Ruzsky, M.D. (1915) О муравьях Тибета и южной Гоби. Ежег. Зоол. Муз. Импер. Акад. наук., 20, 418–444.

  60. Seifert, B. (1984). "Firm evidence for synonymy of Myrmica rugulosoides Forel, 1915 and Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846." Abh. Ber. Naturkundemus. Gorlitz 58(6): 1-8.

  61. Seifert, B. (1987). "Myrmica georgica n. sp., a new ant from Transcaucasia and North Kazakhstan (U.S.S.R.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)." Reichenbachia 24: 183-187.

  62. Seifert, B. (1988). "A taxonomic revision of the Myrmica species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caucasia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Abh. Ber. Naturkundemus. Gorlitz 62(3): 1-75.

  63. Seifert, B. (1993). "Taxonomic description of Myrmica microrubra n sp. - a social parasitic ant so far known as the microgyne of Myrmica rubra (L.)." Abh. Ber. Naturkundemus. Gorlitz 67(5): 9-12.

  64. Seifert, B. (2000). Myrmica lonae Finzi. 1926 - a species separate from Myrmica sabuleti MEINERT. 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). - Abhandhmgen und Berichte des Narurkiindemiiseums Gorlitz 72: 195-205.

  65. Seifert, B. (2005). Rank elevation in two European ant species: Myrmica lobulicornis Nylander, 1857, stat.n. and Myrmica spinosior Santschi, 1931, stat.n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)// "Myrmecologische Nachrichten", ("Myrmecological News") 2005, Volume 7, Pages 1-7, (Wien, September 2005).

  66. Tarbinsky, Y.S. (1976) Муравьи Киргизии. Фрунзе, 217 pp.

  67. Weber, N.A. (1947) A revision of the North American Ants of the Genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palaearctic Species. 1. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 40, 437–474.


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