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Муравьи   рода   Leptogenys (5)

Пещерные муравьи Leptogenys.

Leptogenys:   1-Intro  3-World  4-Reg  5-Lit




1758 - 2004

    Род Leptogenys упоминается в 302 статьях, использованной здесь базы Formis-2003, в том числе:

    1. Bingham, C.T. (1903). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Ants and cuckoo-wasps. London : Taylor & Francis Vol. 2 - 507 pp.

    2. Bolton, B. (1975). A revision of the ant genus Leptogenys Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Ethiopian region with a review of the Malagasy species. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.)75: 237-305.

    3. Christiansen K.A. (1962). "Proposition pour la classification des animaux cavernicoles." Spelunca. 2: 76-78.

    4. Christiansen K.A. (1965). "Behavior and form in the evolution of cave Collembola." Evolution. 19: 529-537.

    5. Culver D. (1982). "Cave life, evolution and ecology". Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    6. Dejean, A. (1997). "Distribution of colonies and prey specialization in the ponerine ant genus Leptogenys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Sociobiology 29: 293-300.

    7. Dejean, A. and C. Evraerts (1997). "Predatory behavior in the genus Leptogenys: a comparative study." J. Insect Behav. 10: 177-191.

    8. Duncan, F. D. and R. M. Crewe (1993). "A comparison of the energetics of foraging of three species of Leptogenys (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Physiol. Entomol. 18: 372-378.

    9. Duncan, F. D. and R. M. Crewe (1994). "Group hunting in a ponerine ant, Leptogenys nitida Smith." Oecologia 97: 118-123.

    10. Forel, A. 1915. Results of Dr. E. Mjobergs Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia 1910-1913. 2. Ameisen. Ark. Zool. 9: 1-119.

    11. Fuminori, I. 1997. Colony composition and morphological caste differentiation between ergatoid queens and workers in the ponerine ant genus Leptogenys in the Oriental tropics. Ethology Ecology and Evolution 9:335-343.

    12. Ganeshaiah, K. N. and T. Veena (1991). "Topology of the foraging trails of Leptogenys processionalis--why are they branched." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 29: 263-270.

    13. Kempf, W. W. (1961). "Labidus coecus as a cave ant." Stud. Entomol. 4: 551-552.

    14. Kumar, A. R. V. and G. K. Veeresh (1990). Nesting, nest shifting and foraging habits of Leptogenys diminuta. Social insects: an Indian perspective. G. K. Veeresh, A. R. V. Kumar and T. Shivashankar. Bangalore, India. 231 p, IUSSI, Indian Chapter,: 108-115.
      Proceedings of the 1st National Symposium on social insets, 7-8 October, 1987. Colony size ranges from 196 - 566 workers workers / colony. The ants shift their nests on an average of 0.26 times per day per colony. They occupy existing cavities in soil & do not dig nests of their own.

    15. Maschwitz, U. and M. Muhlenberg (1975). "Zur Jagdstrategie einiger orientalischer Leptogenys-Arten (Formicidae: Ponerinae)." Oecologia 20: 65-83.
      = The strategy of predation in some Oriental Leptogenys species (Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    16. Maschwitz, U. and P. Schonegge (1983). "Forage communication, nest moving recruitment, and prey specialization in the oriental ponerine Leptogenys chinensis." Oecologia 57: 175-182.
      На севере Центральной Шри-Ланки муравей Leptogenys chinensis специализирован на питании термитами-грибководами Macrotermitinae (Odontotermes, Hypotermes), самыми обычными в этих местах. Муравьи распознают термитов по их запаху и предпочитают охотится на рабочих и половые формы. Другие термиты (Nasutitermitinae, Rhinotermitinae) иногда используются , а иногда и отвергаются. Отказ и принятие не коррелируют с систематическим положением термитов. Обычные гнезда L. chinensis содержат 200-300 рабочих. Externally the female ergatoids do not differ from the workers. The ants live in naturally available cavities and move nests frequently. We investigated the communication of this species in relation to foraging and nest-moving. While foraging, single workers lay a light exploration trail with venom. Successful scouts return to the nest and perform recruiting runs. Experiments with various blocked pheromone glands and decoys showed that the secretions of the poison gland and the Janet gland have to be applied to the ground. By this means groups of workers are recruited and led to a feeding place by a scout. When the scout was removed such groups would still, although slightly disturbed, find their way to the prey. Workers running alone are also observed. The secretion of the Janet gland has a recruiting effect, whereas the venom consists of two compounds: a compound of low volatility responsible for orientation, and a highly volatile compound which we interpret as being a way of estimating the age of the trail. In most cases the recruited workers return singly to the nest. Retrieval of the prey in groups is primarily observed with captured termite sexuals. Males use the trails to find and enter alien nests. In addition to the three chemical signals, stridulation with the gastral stridulatory organ is used as a mechanical signal in the frequent event of nest-moving, which is accomplished within few minutes.

    17. Maschwitz, U., S. Steghaus-Kovac, et al. (1989). "A South East Asian ponerine ant of the genus Leptogenys (Hym., Form.) with army ant habits." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 24: 305-316.
      Переселение и рейды у Leptogenys sp. 1 в Юго-восточной Азии напоминает поведение L. mutabilis, было исследовано в полевых условиях в Малайзии (Ulu Gombak, Malaysia). Семьи их моногинные в которых до 52100 рабочих. The bivouac sites of this species were found in leaf litter, rotten logs, ground cavities, etc. and werre rarely modified by the ants. The colonies stayed in these temporary nests for several hours to 10 days; afterwards they moved to a new nest site. The emigration distances ranged from 5-58 m. Since nest changing takes place at irregular intervals, and pupae and larvae are always present in the nest relocations of Leptogenys sp. 1, the emigration behavior is not linked to a synchronzed brood development. Leptogenys sp. 1 is a noctural forager; in our study op to 42600 workers partecipated in each raid. The ants moved forward on a broad front; behind the swarm a fan-shaped network of foraging columns converges to form a main trunk trail. A new system of foraging trails is developed in each raid. The workers search for their prey collectively; they attack and retrieve the booty together. The diet of Leptogenys sp. 1 consists mainly of arthropods. Army ants behavior is characterized by (1) formation of large monogynous colonies, (2) frequent emigrations, and (3) mass raids in which all foraging activities are carried out collectively. Since Leptogenys sp. 1 performs these typical army ant behavior patterns, this species represents the army ant ecotype. However, this species differs considerably from army ant species that have synchronized broods and huge colonies with dichtadiiform females.

    18. Mei, M. (1992). "Su alcune specie endogee o criptobiotiche della mirmecofauna italiana." Fragm. Entomol. 23: 411-422.

    19. Mei, M. (1995). "Arthropoda di Lampedusa, Linosa e Pantelleria (Canale di Sicilia, Mar Mediterraneo). Hymenoptera Formicidae (con diagnosi di due nuove specie)." Nat. Sicil. 4)19(suppl.): 753-772.
      Описаны и 2 новых вида с этих островов
      PDF-КОПИЯ статьи

    20. Roger, J. 1861. Die Ponera-Artigen Ameisen. Berl. Entomol. Z. 5: 1-54.

    21. Roncin E., Deharveng L., Bedos A. (2001). Cave ants in Southeaest Asia. In "XV International Simposium of Biospeleology", Intervalee, Sao Paulo (Brasil), 8-15 July 2001. Abstracta: 66-67.

    22. Shivashankar, T., D. Rajagopal, et al. (1991). "Foraging and nesting activity of the legionary ponerine ant Leptogenys processionalis (Formicidae: Hymenoptera)." J. Soil Biol. Ecol. 11: 112-121.

    23. Steghaus-Kovac, S., Maschwitz, U. 1993. Predation on earwigs: a novel diet specialization within the genus Leptogenys (Formicidae: Ponerinae). Insectes Soc. 40:337-340.

    24. Taylor, R. W. 1969. The identity of Dorylozelus mjobergi Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 8:131-133.

    25. Taylor, R. W. 1988. The nomenclature and distribution of some Australian and New Caledonian ants of the genus Leptogenys Roger (= Prionogenys Emery, n. syn.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Gen. Appl. Entomol. 20:33-37.

    26. Tinaut A. (2001). "Hypoponera ragusai (Emery,1895) a cavernicolous ant new for Iberian peninsula." Graelsia. 57: 3-8.

    27. Tinaut A., Lopez F. (2001). "Ants and cavee: sociability and ecological conetraints." Sociobiology. 37: 651-659.

    28. Tiwari, R. N. (1999). "Taxonomic studies on ants of Southern India (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Mem. Zool. Surv. India 18: 1-96.
      Странная некритическая работа, запоздавшая на полвека. Обзор фауны муравьев Индии со списком 219 видов. Маловато, конечно, для тропической Индии. Но автор ещё и добавляет на полном серьезе два вида рода Atta (!!!), которые нигде кроме Америки не обитают. Jerdon (1851) действительно описал сразу 50 видов в тот год, в том числе и Atta, которые не сохранились и их надо рассматривать как "unidentifiable or unrecognisable taxon". Бингхем (1902) приводил для Индии 498 видов из 79 родов. Позднее, Chapman and Capco (1951) зафиксировали для Азиатского субконтинета 2080 видов, 441 подвид и 684 вариетета из 176 родов. Зато, автор статьи приводит такие интересные цифры для Ориентального региона (включая Индо-Австралию) - 227 родов (включая 27 эндемиков) и 2480 описанных видов. Из них 771 из Ориентального региона и 1709 из Индо-Австралийского региона.

    29. Wheeler, W. M. (1904). "A crustacean-eating ant (Leptogenys elongata Buckley)." Biol. Bull. 6: 251-259.

    30. Wheeler, W. M. (1923). "The occurrence of winged females in the ant genus Leptogenys Roger, with descriptions of new species." Am. Mus. Novit. 90: 1-16.

    31. Wheeler, W. M. (1938). Ants from the caves of Yucatan, Pp. 251-255 in: Pearse, A. S. Fauna of the caves of Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 491:1-304.

    32. Wilson, E. O. (1958). "Studies on the ant fauna of Melanesia. I. The tribe Leptogenyini. II. The tribes Amblyoponini and Platythyreini." Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 118: 101-153.

    33. Wilson, E. O. (1962). "The Trinidad cave ant Erebomyrma (=Spelaeomyrmex) urichi (Wheeler), with a comment on cavernicolous ants in general." Psyche 69: 62-72.
      Brachymyrmex cavernicola, Erebomyrma urichi, Paratrechina pearsei, Spelaeomyrmex urichi

    34. Witte, V. and U. Maschwitz (2000). "Raiding and emigration dynamics in the ponerine army ant Leptogenys distinguenda (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 47: 76-83.

    35. Witte, V. and U. Maschwitz (2002). "Coordination of raiding and emigration in the ponerine army ant Leptogenys distinguenda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae): a signal analysis." J. Insect Behav. 15(2): 195-217.
      Several glandular sources of trail pheromones have been discovered in army ants in general. Nevertheless, at present the understanding of the highly coordinated behavior of these ants is far from complete. The importance of trail pheromone communication for the coordination of raids and emigrations in the ponerine army ant Leptogenys distinguenda was examined, and its ecological function is discussed. The secretions of at least two glands organize the swarming activities of L. distinguenda. The pygidial gland is the source of an orientation pheromone holding the group of raiding workers together. The same pheromone guides emigrations to new nest sites. In addition, the poison sac contains two further components: one with a weak orientation effect and another which produces strong, but short-term attraction and excitement. The latter component is important in prey recruitment and characterizes raid trails. This highly volatile recruitment pheromone allows the extreme swarm dynamic characteristic of this species. Emigration trails lack the poison gland secretion. Due to their different chemical compositions, the ants are thus able to distinguish between raid and emigration trails. Nest emigration is not induced chemically, but mechanically, by the jerking movements of stimulating workers.

    36. Xu, Z. (1996). "A taxonomic study on the ant genus Leptogenys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in China. [In Chinese]." J. Yunnan Agric.Univ. 11: 222-227.

    37. Xu, Z. (2000). "Five new species and one new record species of the genus Leptogenys from Yunnan Province, Chine." Entom. Sinica. 7: 117-126.


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