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Реклассификация всех муравьев подсемейства Myrmicinae

"Insectes sociaux", Муравьиные НОВОСТИ: Виды-2013 и 2014, Статьи-2008 и 2012

Добавлено 15-5-2015 

Реклассификация всех муравьев подсемейства Myrmicinae

Ward, P. S. (1); Seán G. Brady (2); Brian L. Fisher (3) and Ted R. Schultz (2).
E-mail: psward@ucdavis.edu

1 - Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, CA, U.S.A.,
2 - Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
3 - Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.

The evolution of myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

"Systematic Entomology"
40, с. 61–81.

      РЕФЕРАТ. Проведено исследование эволюционной истории гиперразнообразной клады, подсемейства муравьёв Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), основанное на анализе матрицы данных 251 вида и 11 ядерных генов. Вместо 25 триб оставлено только 6 новых по объёму триб. Under both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods of inference, we recover a robust phylogeny that reveals six major clades of Myrmicinae, here treated as newly defined tribes and occurring as a pectinate series: Myrmicini, Pogonomyrmecini trib.n., Stenammini, Solenopsidini, Attini and Crematogastrini. Because we condense the former 25 myrmicine tribes into a new six-tribe scheme, membership in some tribes is now notably different, especially regarding Attini. We demonstrate that the monotypic genus Ankylomyrma is neither in theMyrmicinae nor even amember of themore inclusive formicoid clade – rather it is a poneroid ant, sister to the genus Tatuidris (Agroecomyrmecinae). Several species-rich myrmicine genera are shown to be nonmonophyletic, including Pogonomyrmex, Aphaenogaster, Messor, Monomorium, Pheidole, Temnothorax and Tetramorium. We propose a number of generic synonymies to partially alleviate these problems (senior synonym listed first): Pheidole = Anisopheidole syn.n.=Machomyrma syn.n.; Temnothorax = Chalepoxenus syn.n.=Myrmoxenus syn.n.=Protomognathus syn.n.; Tetramorium = Rhoptromyrmex syn.n.=Anergates syn.n. = Teleutomyrmex syn.n. The genus Veromessor stat.r. is resurrected for the New World species previously placed in Messor; Syllophopsis stat.r. is resurrected from synonymy under Monomorium to contain the species in the hildebrandti group; Trichomyrmex stat.r. is resurrected from synonymy under Monomorium to contain the species in the scabriceps- and destructor- groups; and the monotypic genus Epelysidris stat.r. is reinstated for Monomorium brocha. Bayesian divergence dating indicates that the crown group Myrmicinae originated about 98.6Ma (95% highest probability density 87.9–109.6Ma) but the six major clades are considerably younger, with age estimates ranging from 52.3 to 71.1Ma. Although these and other suprageneric taxa arose mostly in the middle Eocene or earlier, a number of prominent, species-rich genera, such as Pheidole, Cephalotes, Strumigenys, Crematogaster and Tetramorium, have estimated crown group origins in the late Eocene or Oligocene. Most myrmicine species diversity resides in the two sister clades, Attini and Crematogastrini, which are estimated to have originated and diversified extensively in the Neotropics and Paleotropics, respectively. The newly circumscribed Myrmicini is Holarctic in distribution, and ancestral range estimation suggests a Nearctic origin. The Pogonomyrmecini and Solenopsidini are reconstructed as being Neotropical in origin, but they have subsequently colonized the Nearctic region (Pogonomyrmecini) and many parts of the Old World as well as the Nearctic region (Solenopsidini), respectively. The Stenammini have flourished primarily in the northern hemisphere, and are most likely of Nearctic origin, but selected lineages have dispersed to the northern Neotropics and the Paleotropics. Thus the evolutionary history of the Myrmicinae has played out on a global stage over the last 100 Ma, with no single region being the principal generator of species diversity.


      Veromessor stat.r. восстановлен из синонимии с Messor, generating the following revived combinations in Veromessor: andrei, chamberlini, chicoensis, julianus, lariversi, lobognathus, pergandei, smithi and stoddardi.

      Syllophopsis stat.r. восстановлен из синонимии с Monomorium, to contain the Monomorium species in the hildebrandti-group (sensu Heterick, 2006; this includes the fossulatum-group of Bolton, 1987). Ireneidris is removed from synonymy under Monomorium, and newly synonymized (syn.n.) under Syllophopsis. This creates the following new combinations in Syllophopsis: adiastolon, aureorugosa, australica, dentata, ferodens, fisheri, gongromos, hildebrandti, infusca, kondratieffi, malamixta, sechellensis, sersalata, subcoeca, thrascolepta and vitiensis; and the following revived combinations in Syllophopsis: arnoldi (= jonesi, unnecessary replacement name), cryptobia, elgonensis and modesta.

      Род Epelysidris stat.r. восстановлен из синонимии с Monomorium to contain the single known species E. brocha (comb.r.). Its putative sister species ‘Monomorium’ latinode is very different morphologically and a new genus will be erected for it in a forthcoming publication (B. Bolton, personal communication).

      Авторы поддерживают синонимизацию Carebarella under Solenopsis, generating the following new combinations in Solenopsis: alvarengai, condei. The type species of Carebarella (bicolor) was already combined with Solenopsis by Pacheco & Mackay (2013). Although they declined to propose new generic synonymy, their new combination effectively did this, although it left the other two names orphaned.

      Anisopheidole синонимизирован (syn.n.) under Pheidole, generating the following revived combination in Pheidole: antipodum.

      Machomyrma синонимизирован (syn.n.) under Pheidole, generating the following new combination in Pheidole: dispar.

      Chalepoxenus синонимизирован (syn.n.) under Temnothorax, generating the following new combinations in Temnothorax: brunneus, hyrcanus, kutteri, muellerianus, spinosus, tarbinskii, tauricus, tramieri and zabelini. Two of these new combinations become secondary junior homonyms, T. spinosus (Arnoldi) and T. tauricus (Radchenko), which are here replaced (nom.n.) with T. sentosus and T. inquilinus, respectively.

      Myrmoxenus синонимизирован (syn.n.) under Temnothorax, generating the following new combinations in Temnothorax: adlerzi, africana, algeriana, bernardi, birgitae, corsica, gordiagini, kraussei, ravouxi, stumperi, tamarae, and zaleskyi. Two of these new combinations, T. kraussei (Emery) and T. tamarae (Arnoldi), create secondary junior homonyms among two species already in Temnothorax, T. kraussei (Emery) and T. tamarae (Radchenko), which are here replaced (nom. n.) with T. mediterraneus and T. georgicus, respectively.

      Protomognathus синонимизирован (syn. n.) under Temnothorax, generating the following new combination in Temnothorax: americanus.

      Rhoptromyrmex синонимизирован (syn.n.) под Tetramorium, generating the following new combinations (unless otherwise noted) in Tetramorium: caritum, critchleyi, globulinodis, mayri, melleum (comb.r.), opacum, rawlinsoni, schmitzi, transversinodis and wroughtonii. One of these, T. mayri Forel, creates a secondary junior homonym of a species already in Tetramorium, T. mayri (Mann), which is here replaced (nom.n.) with T. solomonensis. The new combination T. transversinodis (Mayr) is a secondary senior homonym of an invalid name, T. transversinodis (Enzmann), which therefore does not require a replacement name.

      Anergates синонимизирован (syn.n.) under Tetramorium, generating the following new combination in Tetramorium: atratulum.

      Teleutomyrmex синонимизирован (syn.n.) under Tetramorium, generating the following new combinations in Tetramorium: kutteri, schneideri. Tetramorium schneideri (Kutter) becomes a secondary junior homonym, here replaced with T. inquilinum (nom.n.).

      Strongylognathus Mayr также синонимизирован с Tetramorium Mayr, but it has priority over Tetramorium. Transfer of the hundreds of valid Tetramorium species names to Strongylognathus, with consequent changes in spelling to many of them, would create considerable confusion. In this instance a ruling by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature would be required to validate a reversal of precedence (ICZN Article 23.9.3). In the interim we maintain current usage and refrain from synonymizing the two genera.

      Trichomyrmex stat.r. восстановлен из синонимии под Monomorium, to contain the Monomorium species in the scabriceps- and destructor-groups (sensu Bolton, 1987; see also Radchenko, 1997). Holcomyrmex and Parholcomyrmex are removed from synonymy under Monomorium, and newly synonymized (syn.n.) under Trichomyrmex. These actions generate the following new combinations in Trichomyrmex: aberrans, abyssinicus, chobauti, chobauti ajjer, criniceps, destructor, emeryi, emeryi laevior, epinotale, glaber, lameerei, mayri, muticus, oscaris, perplexus, robustior, santschii (= santschianum, unnecessary replacement name) and scabriceps; and the following revived combinations in Trichomyrmex: rogeri and wroughtoni (= wroughtonianum, unnecessary replacement name).


      Триба Myrmicini Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau 1835
      Родовой состав. Manica, Myrmica, †Plesiomyrmex and †Protomyrmica. Примечание. Eutetramorium, Huberia, Hylomyrma, Pogonomyrmex и Secostruma исключены из Myrmicini.

      Триба Pogonomyrmecini trib.n.
      Родовой состав. Hylomyrma and Pogonomyrmex.

      Триба Stenammini Ashmead 1905 = Aphaenogastrini Enzmann 1947 syn.n.
      Родовой состав. Aphaenogaster, Goniomma, Oxyopomyrmex, Messor, †Paraphaenogaster, Stenamma и Veromessor.
      Примечание. Veromessor is resurrected from synonymy (above). The reclassification of ‘Aphaenogaster’ awaits more detailed phylogenetic analysis of lineage diversity within Stenammini

      Триба Solenopsidini Forel 1893 = Myrmicariini Forel 1893 syn.n. = Monomoriini Emery 1914 = Megalomyrmecini Dlussky & Fedoseeva 1988 = Stegomyrmecini Wheeler 1922 syn.n. = Adelomyrmecini Fernández 2004 syn.n.
      Родовой состав. Adelomyrmex, Anillomyrma, Austromorium, Baracidris, Bariamyrma, *Bondroitia, Cryptomyrmex, Dolopomyrmex, Epelysidris, Kempfidris, Megalomyrmex, Monomorium, Myrmicaria, Oxyepoecus, Rogeria, Solenopsis, Stegomyrmex, Syllophopsis, Tropidomyrmex и Tyrannomyrmex.
      Примечание. Carebarella is considered a synonym of Solenopsis (above). Monomorium remains a heterogeneous, nonmonophyletic group. Из состава Solenopsidini исключены рода Adlerzia, Allomerus, Carebara, Diplomorium, Mayriella и Tranopelta.

      Триба Attini F. Smith 1858 = Pheidolini Emery 1877 (= Anergatidini Emery 1922) syn.n. = Dacetini Forel 1892 (= Epopostrumina Brown 1952 = Orectognathina Brown 1952=Strumigenina Brown 1952) syn. n. = Ochetomyrmecini Emery 1914 syn.n. = Cephalotini M. R. Smith 1949 (= Cryptoceridae F. Smith 1853) syn.n. = Basicerotini Brown 1949 syn.n. = Phalacromyrmecini Dlussky & Fedoseeva 1988 syn.n. = Blepharidattini Wheeler & Wheeler 1991 syn.n. = Lenomyrmecini Bolton 2003 syn.n.
      Родовой состав. Acanthognathus, Acromyrmex, Allomerus, Apterostigma, Atta, †Attaichnus, Basiceros, Blepharidatta, Cephalotes, *Chimaeridris, Colobostruma, *Cyatta, Cyphomyrmex, Daceton, Diaphoromyrma, Epopostruma, Eurhopalothrix, *Ishakidris, Kalathomyrmex, Lachnomyrmex, Lenomyrmex, Mesostruma, Microdaceton, *Mycetagroicus, Mycetarotes, *Mycetophylax, Mycetosoritis, Mycocepurus, Myrmicocrypta, Ochetomyrmex, Octostruma, Orectognathus, *Paramycetophylax, Phalacromyrmex, Pheidole, Pilotrochus, Procryptocerus, Protalaridris, *Pseudoatta, Rhopalothrix, *Sericomyrmex, Strumigenys, Talaridris, Trachymyrmex, Tranopelta и Wasmannia.

      Триба Crematogastrini Forel 1893 =Formicoxenini Forel 1893 (= Cardiocondylini Emery 1914 = Leptothoracini Emery 1914 = Stereomyrmecini Emery 1914 = Podomyrmini Emery 1924 = Solenomyrmini Donisthorpe 1943) syn.n. = Cataulacini Emery 1895 syn.n. = Tetramoriini Emery 1895 (= Anergatini Emery 1914 = Teleutomyrmecini Kutter 1950) syn.n. = Melissotarsini Emery 1901 syn.n. = Myrmecinini Ashmead 1905 syn.n. = Metaponini Forel 1911 syn.n. = Lophomyrmecini Emery 1914 syn.n. = Meranoplini Emery 1914 syn.n. = Ocymyrmecini Emery 1914 syn.n. = Pheidologetonini Emery 1914 syn.n. = Proattini Forel 1917 syn.n. = Hypopomyrmecina Brown 1952 syn.n. = Calyptomyrmecini Dlussky & Fedoseeva 1988 syn.n. = Liomyrmecini Bolton 2003 syn.n. = Paratopulini Bolton 2003 syn.n.
      Родовой состав. Acanthomyrmex, Adlerzia, Ancyridris, Atopomyrmex, Calyptomyrmex, Cardiocondyla, Carebara, Cataulacus, Crematogaster, Cyphoidris, Dacatria, Dacetinops, Dicroaspis, Dilobocondyla, Diplomorium, †Enneamerus, †Eocenomyrma, Eutetramorium, Formicoxenus, *Formosimyrma, Gauromyrmex, *Goaligongidris, Harpagoxenus, Huberia, †Hypopomyrmex, *Indomyrma, Kartidris, *Lasiomyrma, Leptothorax, Liomyrmex, †Lonchomyrmex, Lophomyrmex, Lordomyrma, Malagidris, Mayriella, Melissotarsus, Meranoplus, Metapone, Myrmecina, Myrmisaraka, Nesomyrmex, Ocymyrmex, †Oxyidris, †Parameranoplus, Paratopula, Perissomyrmex, *Peronomyrmex, Podomyrma, Poecilomyrma, Pristomyrmex, Proatta, Propodilobus, Recurvidris, Rhopalomastix, Romblonella, *Rostromyrmex, Rotastruma, Royidris, Secostruma, *Stereomyrmex, †Stigmomyrmex, †Stiphromyrmex, Strongylognathus, Temnothorax, Terataner, Tetheamyrma, Tetramorium, Trichomyrmex, Vitsika, Vollenhovia, Vombisidris and Xenomyrmex.

      Ископаемые таксоны без уточнения трибы
      †Afromyrma, †Attopsis, †Bilobomyrma, †Boltonidris, †Brachytarsites, †Cephalomyrmex, †Clavipetiola, †Electromyrmex, †Eocenidris, †Eomyrmex, †Fallomyrma, †Fushunomyrmex, †Ilemomyrmex, †Miosolenopsis, †Myrmecites, †Orbigastrula, †Quadrulicapito, †Quineangulicapito, †Sinomyrmex, †Solenopsites, †Sphaerogasterites, †Wumyrmex and †Zhangidris.

      Исключённые из состава Myrmicinae
      Триба Ankylomyrmini Bolton и её единственный род Ankylomyrma Bolton, перенесён в подсемейство Agroecomyrmecinae, т.к. Ankylomyrma является сестринским к роду Tatuidris.


Myrmica, Formica, Lasius, и Camponotus



Палеонтологическая история муравьев

"Муравей с Марса" и новое подсемейство

Фруктовая мимикрия муравьев, вызванная паразитом

Состав семьи   Гнездостроение   Питание   Голова   Грудь   Брюшко   Усики  Щупики  Домовые  Социальные паразиты   Древесные гнезда   Холмики и купола   Мирмекофилы  

Значение муравьев   Защита леса   Тли   Почва   Семена   Питание   Ужаления  Болезни  Домовые  Инвазии   Мирмекофилы   Листовертки   Пилильщики   Пяденицы   Шелкопряды



Cписок литературы.

  1. Bolton, B. (2003) Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 71, 1–370.

  2. Dlussky, G.M., Brothers, D.J. & Rasnitsyn, A.P. (2004) The first Late Cretaceous ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from southern Africa, with comments on the origin of the Myrmicinae. Insect Systematics and Evolution, 35, 1–13.

  3. Hölldobler, B. & Wilson, E.O. (1990) The Ants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

  4. Kugler, C. (1979) Evolution of the sting apparatus in the myrmicine ants. Evolution, 33, 117–130.

  5. LaPolla, J.S., Dlussky, G.M. & Perrichot, V. (2013) Ants and the fossil record. Annual Review of Entomology, 58, 609–630.

  6. Moreau, C.S., Bell, C.D., Vila, R., Archibald, S.B.&Pierce, N.E. (2006) Phylogeny of the ants: diversification in the age of angiosperms. Science, 312, 101–104.

  7. Moreau C.S. (2009). Inferring ant evolution in the age of molecular data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) // Myrmecological News. 2009. V. 12. P. 201–210.

  8. Ward, P.S. (2007) Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa, 1668, 549–563.


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