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ANT =AMEISEARINKOEMMETFOURMISFORMICAFURNICAHANGYAHORMIGAJENJOLAKARINCALANGGAMMAURMIAMMELMIERMRAVECMRAVENECMROWKA... AA...=MUURAHAINENMYRAMYRERMYRMICANIMLASIPELGAS...SISIMIZE


    Paratrechina (5)

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Paratrechina:   1-Intro   3-   5-

 

, , Paratrechina

1758 - 2007



    Formis-2003 Paratrechina, 755 ). :


    1. . . Camponotus Mayr., Polyergus Latr. Paratrechina Motsch. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) // . , 1981. . 117 124.

    2. Arcila, A. M., L. A. Gomez, et al. (2002). "Factors that influence individual fecundity of queens and queen production in crazy ant Paratrechina fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Sociobiology 39: 323-334.

    3. Arcila, A. M., L. A. Gomez, et al. (2002). "Immature development and colony growth of crazy ant Paratrechina fulva under laboratory conditions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Sociobiology 39: 307-321.

    4. Banks, W. A. and D. F. Williams (1989). "Competitive displacement of Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from baits by fire ants in Mato Grosso, Brazil." J. Entomol. Sci. 24: 381-391.
      : Paratrechina longicornis Latreille Solenopsis invicta Buren. Paratrechina longicornis discovered the foods, honey, meat, and cookie, first and recruited large numbers of foragers, dominating the baits for the first 20-30 min of the tests. Solenopsis invicta was slower to discover the baits but their ability to recruit additional foragers and their aggressive behavior resulted in displacement within 45-60 min of most P. longicornis and other ants from the baits and foraging arena. Four other species of ants observed in the study site: a Mycocepurus sp., an Acromyrmex sp., and two Conomyrma sp. occasionally fed on the baits but were not effective competitors for the former two species.

    5. Fernandez, F. (2000). "Notas taxonmicas sobre la "hormiga loca" (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Paratrechina fulva) en Colombia." Rev. Colomb. Entomol. 26: 145-149.

    6. Freitag, A., K. Dorn, et Cherix, D. (2000). "First occurence of the crazy ant Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (Hym. Formicidae: Formicinae) in Switzerland." Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 73: 301-303.

    7. Heinze, J. (1986). "A new find of Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille 1802) on the Azores (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Bocagiana 101: 1-3.

    8. Ichinose, K. (1986). "Occurrence of polydomy in a monogynous ant, Paratrechina flavipes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Kontyu 54: 208-217.

    9. Ichinose, K. (1987). "Annual life cycle of Paratrechina flavipes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Tomakomai Experiment Forest, southern Hokkaido." Kontyu 55: 9-20.

    10. Ichinose, K. (1987). "Seasonal changes in nest and colony densities of the formicine ant, Paratrechina flavipes(Hymenoptera, Formicidae), in Tomakomai, Southern Hokkaido." Kontyu 55: 565-572.

    11. Ichinose, K. (1991). "Seasonal variation in nestmate recognition in Paratrechina flavipes (Smith) worker ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Anim. Behav. 41: 1-6.
      Paratrechina flavipes 3 . About every 2 weeks for 2 years workers from one of these nests were paired with (related) workers from another nest from the same colony or with (unrelated) workers from a different colony. Aggression between workers of the paired nests varied seasonally. Workers were aggressive to related individuals only during the season when the nest was active, but they were always aggressive to unrelated workers. Such variability in aggression within a colony may be due to a seasonal change in the way nestmates are recognized, i.e. workers in active nests may discriminate their nestmates from non-nestmates by using both environmental and genetic odours, whereas when the nest is inactive they use genetic odour alone. The variable recognition mechanism of this ant may be involved in the evolution of more than one nest and one reproductive queen in a colony.

    12. Ichinose, K.(1994). "The influence of queens of the ant Paratrechina flavipes on daughter and non-daughter workers, for the suppression of sexual production." Entomol. Exp. Appl 73: 157-162.

    13. Ichinose, K. (1994). "Limited multiple-mating in males and single-mating in females of the ant species, Paratrechina flavipes (Fr. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Pan Pac. Entomol. 70: 183-187.

    14. MacKay, W. P. (1998). A remarkable new species of Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the state of Colina, Mexico. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 74: 99-101

    15. Pisarski, B. (1960). "Dwa nowe gatunki z rodzaju Paratrechina Motschulsky (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Ann. Zool., Warszawa 18: 349-356.

    16. Terayama, M. (1999). "Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, Part 5. Genus Paratrechina Motschoulsky." Mem. Myrmecol. Soc. Jpn. 1: 49-64.

    17. Thompson, C. R., J. C. Nickerson, et al. (1979). "Nymphal habitat of Oliarus vicarius (Homoptera: Cixiidae), and possible association with Aphaenogaster and Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Psyche 86: 321-325.

    18. Thompson, C. R. (1984). "Association of Paratrechina arenivaga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with nymphs of Oecleus borealis (Homoptera: Cixiidae)." J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 92: 35-41.

    19. Trager, J. C. (1984). A revision of the genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the continental United States. Sociobiology, 9: 49-162

    20. Trager, J. C. (1984 a). A revision of the genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the continental United States, Ph.D. dissert., Univ. of Florida, 279 p.
      [Dissert. Abstr. Int. B 45: 2804]

    21. Wetterer, J. K., S. E. Miller, Wheeler, D.E., Olson, C.A., Polhemus, D.A., Pitts, M., Ashton, I.W.,Himler, A.G., Yospin, M.M., Helms, K.R., Harken, E.L., Gallaher, J., Dunning, C.E., Nelson, M., Litsinger, J., Southern, A., Burgess, T.L. (1999). "Ecological dominance by Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an invasive tramp ant, in Biosphere 2." Florida Entomol. 82: 381-388.
      **[P. longicornis was not present in Biosphere 2 in 1990-91. By 1993 populations had increased to extremely high levels & by 1996, it was the dominant ant. The main source of carbohydrates was honeydey produced by homopterans. Camponotus festinatus, Camponotus mina, Camponotus sexguttatus, Camponotus ustus, Camponotus sp., Crematogaster steinheili, Crematogaster sp., Cyphomyrmex minutus, Dorymyrmex insana, Forelius pruinosus, & Pheidole sp. 1 were introduced between August 1990 & August 1991 into Biospheres 2 before it was sealed. Between August 1990 & March 1991, 9 species were found: Cardiocondyla ectopia, Crematogaster opuntiae, Hypoponera opaciceps, L. humile, Odontomachus clarus, Paratrechina bourbonica, Pheidole hyatti, Pheidole sp. 2, & S. xyloni. Between April 1993 & January 1994, 6 species were found: C. ectopia, H. opaciceps, Paratrechina longicornis, Pheidole hyatti, Solenopsis xyloni, & T. bicarinatum. In November 1996 & June 1997, 10 species were found: C. wroughtoni, F. maccooki, H. opaciceps, Monomorium floricola, P. longicornis, P. vividula, Solenopsis molesta, Solenopsis rogeri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, & Tetramorium bicarinatum. At that time all ants seen foraging were P. longicornis except for M. floricola on 5 plants, & C. wroughtoni, Paratrechina vividula, T. melanocephalum, & T. bicarinatum on one plant each. Of 28,827 ants on baits, all were P. longicornis, except for one T. bicarinatum. Of the 1193 ants extracted from 18 soil & litter samples, there were 987 P. longicornis, 200 S. molesta, 3 H. opaciceps, 1 F. maccooki, 1 M. floricola, & 1 S. rogeri.]

    22. Wright, A. (1988). "Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (Hym., Formicidae) in Warwickshire." Entomol. Mon. Mag. 124: 62.

    23. Zenner Polania, I. (1994). Impact of Paratrechina fulva on other ant species. Exotic ants: Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. D. F. Williams. Boulder, CO. 332 p., Westview Press: 121-132.

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